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lecture16 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 16...

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1 1 LECTURE 16 UTILITARIANISM 2 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 2 Two parts: [1] A Theory of The Good: A theory of what kinds of states of affairs (ways the world could be) are intrinsically good. [2] Impartial Maximizing Consequentialism: The morally right action in a given situation is that available action which maximizes the total amount of good in the world. Any other action is morally wrong. UTILITARIANISM – REVIEW 3 Assessment of arguments for impartial maximizing consequentialism Assessment of arguments against impartial maximizing consequentialism OUR AIMS
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2 4 [1] Mill’s Argument in Chapter 4 of Utilitarianism [2] Appeal to self-evidence [3] Appeal to cases ARGUMENTS FOR UTILITARIANISM (IMC) 5 [1] Desiring something shows that it is desirable. [2] The only thing that each person ultimately desires is his or her own happiness. ____ [3] Therefore, the only thing that is ultimately desirable for a person is his or her own happiness. (From [1] and [2]) ____ [4] Therefore, each person should perform those actions that promote the greatest happiness. MILL’S ARGUMENT 6 [A] [1] is not true. Desir ed and desir able are not the same. [B] [3] is false if the hedonistic theory of the good is false. [C!] [4] does not follow from [3]. The fact that something is good for a person doesn’t mean that the total amount of good is a good (or the only good) for the person.
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