Iran Study Guide

Iran Study Guide - Iran Study Guide Theocracy (181) The...

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Iran Study Guide Theocracy – (181) The immediate answer to: Is democracy incompatible with Islam? – It is a government strictly ruled by religion Secularization – (181) Religion and government ought to be separate Zoroastrianism – (182) was a state sponsored religion that supported the authority of the king. The only empire successfully able to centralize the power of Zoroastrianism was the Achemenians, setting up the stage for an authoritarian state. Shi’ism – (182) Brand of Islam that distinguishes itself from its neighbors; established in the 16 th century by Ismail (founder of: Safavid Empire). Shi’ism fought with the Sunni Muslims. Problem started because the religion’s founder, Muhammad, died without a heir; creating a massive problem because his army conquered many lands. Shi’ites believed they should pass leadership onto Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali. Sunni Muslims – (182) Fought against Shi’ism all because the religion’s founder, Muhammad, died without a heir; creating a massive problem because his army conquered many lands. Sunni Muslims believed that they ought to pick a leader (caliph) from the Sunni religion (the accepted leadership). Imam – (182) Until the 9 th century, the heirs thought to be the true heirs of Islam were called this “Hidden Imam” – (182) 12 th century a descendent disappeared as a child Ismail – (182) 16 th Century – Ran Iran as a Shi’ite state; promising the return of the “Hidden Imam” but gave power to Iran’s rulers until the Hidden Imam’s return. Ayatollah Khomeini – (183) An Important authoritarian leader (1925-1979) – attempted secularizing the state through charisma. He was a protector of “true faith” (uniting Shi’ites with the power of the state). 1979 Revolution – (181) Westerners saw it as a beginning of a great conflict between the West and Islamic civilizations (eventually causing 9/11). (183) Led by Ayatollah Khomeini in attempts for Shi’ism to gain power of the state. Constitution of 1979 – (183) Document legitimatizing the State as of today, it mixes Theocracy and Democracy. Preamble reflects the importance of religion for the legitimacy of the state, affirming faith in god, Divine Justice, the Qur’an, the Prophet Muhammad, the Tweleve Imams, and the eventual return of the Hidden Imam. Jurist’s Guardianship – (183) Included along with the other ‘divine principles’
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Shari’a – (183) Islamic Law; considered to be an important source of legitimacy that their modern government particularly emphasizes. Safavid Empire – (184) Converted 90% citizens to Shi’ism (Sunni Muslim’s survived as an ethnic group). Safavid tolerated other religions, respecting monotheistic religions of those who shared their holy book (definition below). (185) Safavid claimed to be driect descendents to the tweleve imams. Geographical location took a toll on their ability to rule – they did not have enough money to maintain a bureaucracy or army – although
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Iran Study Guide - Iran Study Guide Theocracy (181) The...

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