Lecture02

Lecture02 - Rethinking Modern Technology (K ¢¶¶“ “...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Rethinking Modern Technology (K ¢¶¶“ “ ** 0¤ Lau Chong­Fuk 2008­09 First Term Lecture 2 Achievements of Technology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 4 < 2 < 7 < 3 < 5 < 8 < 1 < 6 Computer 1941 Flush toilets 1500 Mechanical adding machine 1642 Mechanical clocks 1280 Mercury thermometer 1724 Microwave oven 1946 Telescope 1608 Television 1927 Which Came First? Which Came First? Technology: looking back at Technology: looking back at the last thousand years (I) ► 1023: First paper money printed in China ► 1045: Movable type printing in China ► 1250: Gun invented in China ► 1268: Eyeglasses ► 1280: Mechanical clocks ► 1285: Windmills ► 1455: Printing press with metal movable type (by Gutenberg) ► 1486: First known copyright granted in Venice ► 1500: First flush toilets appeared! Technology: looking back at Technology: looking back at the last thousand years (II) ► 1510: Pocket watch ► 1590: Microscope ► 1608: Telescope (by Galileo) ► 1629: Steam Turbine ► 1642: Mechanical adding machine (by Pascal) ► 1724: Mercury thermometer (by Fahrenheit) ► 1752: Lightning rod (by Franklin) ► 1799: Battery ► 1769: Steam engine improved (by Watt) Technology: looking back at Technology: looking back at the last thousand years (III) ► 1804: Steam­powered locomotive ► 1814: Photograph ► 1831: Electric dynamo (by Faraday) ► 1834: Refrigerator ► 1846: Anesthesia ► 1862: Plastic ► 1837: Telegraph (by Morse) ► 1866: Dynamite (by Nobel) ► 1876: Telephone (by Bell) Technology: looking back at Technology: looking back at the last thousand years (IV) ► 1878: Longer­lasting electric light bulb ► 1885: Automobile (by Benz) ► 1886: Coca Cola ► 1887: Contact lenses ► 1916: Radios tuners ► 1927: Television ► 1935: Nylon ► 1903: Airplane (by the Wright brothers) ► 1928: Penicillin (by Fleming) Technology: looking back at Technology: looking back at the last thousand years (V) ► 1939: Helicopter ► 1941: Computer ► 1945: Atomic bomb ► 1946: Microwave oven ► 1947: Mobile phones ► 1969: Internet (ARPANET) ► 1979: Walkman (by Sony) ► 1971: Videocassette recorder ► 2001: iPod (by Apple Computer) See http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl1300s.htm What is Technology? “Technology” means what? ► Greek origin: τεχνολογία (technologia) ► In Chinese: ( fi 0¤ ► � �� τέχνη (techne) = craft, art, technique λόγος (logos) = thought, speech, reason, logic � � � + 0 0 + ► Two Senses of Technology ¶“ ¶“ Specific Sense: 0 ¤ � General Sense: � 0¤ (Technique) (Technique) What is Technology? What is Technology? ► Hardware: Artifacts, Tools, Machines ► Software: Knowledge, Methodology or Non­natural objects of all kinds, manufactured by humans Computer, mobile, ipod, porsche, space shuttle “Know­how” Rules­based, rationalized methodology Information, skills, processes, and procedures for accomplishing tasks What is Technology? What is Technology? ► System of Manufacture ► System of Use Process and system of manufacturing hardware Including people, machinery, resources, processes or even legal, economic, political and physical environment A system using combinations of hardware and people (and usually other elements) to accomplish tasks that humans cannot perform unaided by such system – to extend human capacities. Automobiles in a system of roads, gas stations, laws for ownership and operation, rules of the road, and the transport system. Before Modern Technology Before Modern Technology ► Ancient Technology ► Technology in China Technology is as old as humanity. Fire, Stone Tools, Metals, Agriculture… The Four Great Inventions of ancient China: Compass, Gunpowder, Papermaking, Printing Francis Bacon (1516­1626) said that printing, gunpowder and compass are the three modern Western (!) inventions that have completely changed the world. Joseph Needham’s ( 0 ¤ ) Grand Question: ) Grand Question Why had China been overshot by the West in science and technology since Renaissance? Before Modern Technology Before Modern Technology ► Centuries were required for ► From Quantitative to Qualitative Change utilization of an invention, transition from a plaything to a useful object, transition to an economic operation, simple perfecting of an instrument. The modern technology is a new genus (essentially different from the traditional one). J. Ellul, The Technological Society, chap. 2. What is Modern Technology? What is Modern Technology? ► What makes modern technology so different? Some Important Conditions: Experimental Natural Sciences Instrumental Rationality Discovery of Electricity (analogous to the discovery of fire in ancient time) Discovery of Efficient Energy Source (coal, oil) Industrialization and Mass Productions Capitalism and Democracy Interdependence of Interdependence of Science and Technology ► Technology = Applied Science? ► Science vs. Technology ἐπιστήμη (episteme) Scientific Knowledge Understanding of Universal Laws τέχνη (techne) Technique, Craft Production of Tools ► Dependence of Science on Technology Scientific research is made possible by technology. Scientific research is conducted for the sake of technology. Remarks on Science and Remarks on Science and Technology ► “Science owes more to the steam engine than the steam engine owes to science.” (Henderson 1917) ► “The close link between scientific research and technical invention appears to be a new factor in the 19th century … In the 20th century, this relationship between scientific research and technical invention resulted in the enslavement of science to technology.” (Ellul 1954) References References ► V. Dusek, Philosophy of Technology: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell, 2006, chap. 2. ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online