Lecture04 - Rethinking Modern Technology ¨d ‰ “ 0 Lau...

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Unformatted text preview: Rethinking Modern Technology ¨d ‰ “ * 0} Lau Chong­Fuk 2008­09 First Term Lecture 4 Preliminary Remarks Preliminary Remarks ► Moral Relativism ► Morality and Religion Context of the Act vs. Context of Evaluation It is right because God commands it, or God commands it because it is right? Immoral → Illegal? Illegal → Immoral? Laws: Need, Acceptance, Enforceability… ► Morality vs. Legality ► Moral Principle vs. Moral Intuition Deontology Principle of Reciprocity Principle of ► “The Golden Rule” “Love your neighbor as yourself.” “Do to others as you would have them do to you.” �� �� �� � � � � � � � �� � � 0 �� � Deontology ( 0} Deontology ( � � ► Immanuel Kant ( 0� ) }� �‰) ► Categorial Imperative ( 0� German Philosopher, 1724­1804 }) ► Foundation of Human Right and Dignity “Act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law.” “Act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.” Conflicts of Duties Conflicts of Duties ► Telling lies (or breaking promises) ► Pluralities and Conflicts of Duties For Kant, telling lies is unconditionally immoral. How about telling a white lie? How about telling a lie to save a life? Isn’t the saving of life also a duty? ► Deontological ethics has difficulties � �’ � � � ª How to weight different duties? resolving conflicts of duties. Other Difficulties Other Difficulties ► What are duties and what are not? ► Who has right and who doesn’t? ► Relevance of Consequences Human beings should never be treated merely as a means. How about other things like animals? Killing an animal vs. destroying a robot One life vs. million lives Is it morally permissible to kill an innocent person to save the lives of millions? ...
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