FINAL AID.docx - Food science application of basic...

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Foodscience: application of basic principles of science+engineering to study & acquire new knowledge on physical, chemical+biochemical aspects of foodFood technology:utilizing info gathered by food science, and applying the appropriate technologies to ensure safety+quality of foodNutrition: effects of food in the person who consumes them;-Applesundergo controlled atmosphere (CA) storage slows down respiration rate+ripening process (decrease in senescence) Eg. McIntosh apples temp 3C, hum. 87%, 2.5%O2, 2.5%CO2, 95%N2; after 6weeks 2.5%O2, 4.5%CO2, 93%N2Foods are mixtures of chemicalsinteract to produce sensory, chemical and physical characteristics under different conditions; externaldispersoncontinuous; lower amount oil, higher amount H2O (oil in water- eg. milk) / internaldispersion dispersed; higher amount oil, lower amount H2O (water in oil- eg. butter 13%H2O,87%fat) / -With ingredient listing, it is in descending order from largest amount to smallest w/oil + H2O, if oil is before H2O, more oil than H2O, vice versa; //// Difference between gel+solid emulsion: gels contain large molecules that form the structure and network to entrap liquid and form dispersion; Emulsifier: substance that stabilizes an emulsion, in particular a food additive used to stabilize processed foods eg. lecithin in mayonnaise / CARBsimplemono (glucose, fructose, galactose); //// disaccharide (sucrose(table sug), lactose(milk sug), maltose(malt sug) (eg. table sugar); -complexpolysaccharide (eg. starch, fibre (cellulose); -sucrose hydroylzed by enzyme (invertase) we get invert sugar (much sweeter than glucose, fructose, sucrose); invert sugar is hygroscopic (affinity for moisture); -lactose fermented by lactic acid bacteria; hydrolyzed by enzyme lactase-lactose free 2% vs reg2% milk:lac free2% is sweeter since lactose contains glucose+galactose and is sweeter than just glucose;- major sug in nectar+honey: sucrose in nectar; fructose in honey -Sweetness index. fructose-sucrose-invertsugar-glucose-galactose ///maltoseformed from starch by enzyme amylase; HFCS: enzymatic breakdown into maltose; maltose undergoes hydrolysis with maltase to produce glucose; glucose then undergoes glucose isomerase to produce 90%HFCS; glucose isomerase function is to convert glucose to fructose; -carb funct.prop: sweetening power, antimicrobial agents, reactant in non-enzymatic browning; -funct.prop– reactant in non-enzymatic browning 1.caramelization: heating sugar alone to 200C color used in cola is created by caramelizing sucrose-2.maillard browning: reducing sugar+amino compounds; eg. glucose,fructose,galactose,lactose; sucrose is a non-reducing sugar);caramelizationandmaillardboth are non-enzymatic required heating; - sucrosecan go directly into caramelization; maillard has to use invertase to break it down to its forming unit of glucose+fructose; - polysaccharides: form part of cellularstructure(cellulose,pectins(from plant tissues) ,gums); energy reserve of animals+plants (glycogen, starch) usually insoluble in H2O and tasteless; act as thickening, suspending solids, stabilizers/gelling agents

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