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CLA Final Review

CLA Final Review - ChapterXIV: Reform,133121B.C 19:04...

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Chapter XIV: The Gracchi and the Struggle over Land  Reform, 133-121 B.C. 19:04 By 133 B.C., Punic Wars and Roman expansion caused serious  socioeconomic changes and discontent among Romans Tiberius Sempronius and Gaius Gracchus tried to solve discontent,  period of violent upheavals and eventual breakdown of Roman  Republic In this period, lack of military recruits: census number decreases  drastically Historical sources for period: Plutarch’s biographies and Appian’s  Civil Wars Earlier, in 145-140, Gaius Laelius had tried to solve problem of low  census number by proposing to reinforce the Licinio sextian laws of  367 B.C., which limited 500 iugera=320 acres the amount of public  land that an individual could own. This was met with extreme  opposition from senate and Gaius Laelius withdrew to avoid  confrontation Tiberius Gracchus knew he did not want to avoid conflict so easily Tiberius Gracchus as Tribune Took office in 133 BC at age 30 Immediately introduced the  Concilium Plebis , an agrarian bill,  without consulting the senate Concilium Plebis  was designed to break up large estates created  out of public land and divide them among landless Romans His father in law, Appius Claudius Pulcher supported him When he finally submitted it to the senate it was rejected HE was not the first to introduce a bill without consulting senate:  Gaius Flaminius in 232 BC Changed the bill, making it less generous by the landowners. But  still did not abide by vetoes of Marcus Octavius, his most outspoken  opponent Tiberius eventually called for M. Octavius’ removal. He was  removed and then  Concilium Plebis  passed
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Tiberius, along with his brother and father in law formed the  Agrarian Commission o The agrarian commission decided which lands were  public and which private in order to repossess land and  redistribute to new settlers o Needed ample funds to give tools to new settlers to use  land- ie housing, crops, seeds, work animals   this was  a chance for his opponents, the senators, to stop him But Tiberius used the personal treasure that Attalus III of Pergamum  had left for the Roman People. With the senate again thwarted,  they spread rumors that Tiberius was planning to declare himself  king Tiberius runs for his second term This was not unprecedented: his grandfather Scipio Africanus did  this during the 2 nd  Punic War, but it was still against traditional  political rules   made opponents mad Early voting- was winning by a landslide Then, interrupted voting and Fulvius Flaccus said there was an emergency 
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