EMPIRE-1 - - wealth of elite- M. Licinius Crassus (consul...

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CLASSICS 218 : THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Lecture 9 : The Costs of Empire I I. Triumph - L . Aemilius Paullus, triumphator 167 II. War - decline of land - Hannibal's devastation - 130,000 Italians overseas per annum - complaints - 180 Spain - 171 Macedonia - Spurius Ligustinus - in army for 22 out of 29 yrs (Livy 42. 34) - manpower shortage - reduction of property requirement - to 0 in 107 = separation of farmer / soldier - problems: - professional soldiers - discipline - allies III. Wealth- rise of luxuria - army back from Asia 187 - booty - end of taxes on citizens' land in Italy 167 (until 43) - panem et circenses , bread & circuses - sumptuary laws 180/140 - wheat for citizens at Rome - subsidized 123 - free 58
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Unformatted text preview: - wealth of elite- M. Licinius Crassus (consul 70)- conspicuous consumption + investment in: IV. Land- rich acquire public and abandoned land- latifundia (sing. latifundium ), large estates- villa and plantation - cereals, olives, vines- Cato, De Agricultura , On Agriculture- profit- ranch - herds in S and S-central Italy V. Slaves - instrumentum vocale (as vs. mutum and semivocale )- mass influx - by end of 1st cent.: 1/3 of population of Italy- slave trade - Delos- advantages over peasants: low costs; organization; not drafted; investment- resistance - rebellions 135 etc. - atmosphere of fear and violence- desertion of countryside - Tiberius Gracchus in 130s...
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EMPIRE-1 - - wealth of elite- M. Licinius Crassus (consul...

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