Anthro Study Guide Quiz 2

Anthro Study Guide Quiz 2 - 9/15/09 What is Uni-Lineal...

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9/15/09 What is Uni-Lineal Evolution? - The idea of civilization savagery, barbarism and civilization - believe that elements of culture do become more complex and adaptive, contributing to people’s overall well-being What is Neo-Evolution (Steward, White) -Change happens in culture but it is not necessarily better, this is the last remnant of cultural evolution What are the four forms of modern society? -Band, Tribe, Chiefdom, State (forms of societies may take, rather than must as in prior ideas, no one is more primitive or simpler than another except in levels of technology) Conclusion: No culture is more simple than another, they avoid words such as “progress” (it implies some cultures are simpler than others), instead they use the word process Objectives What is Cultural Relativism? - Every culture should be evaluated from its own idea of its own culture not from the ideas of others cultures (similar to Historical Particularism, opposite of ethnocentrism) -Received criticism, such as Nazis, product of their culture, we should not inputting our own values on someone else’s culture but neither should we give complete leniency What are the Emmic and Etic Viewpoints? Emmic- the insider point of view, would understand their own culture Etic- the foreigner or outsider point of view, the attempt of an anthropologist to see the idea of a culture What is synchronic vs. diachronic? (At one point in time, the present) -Malinowski had to work in the synchronic point of view, because the Islanders did not have a written history Diachronic (over the course of time, mainly tried to understand cultures with a written history) approaches Methods What caused armchair Anthropologists to start to perform fieldwork?
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-Some “simpler” cultures shared characteristics of civilized societies, i.e. San or Khoi-San, had nuclear families and monogamy, which were characteristic of civilization; savages were described as “promiscuous hordes” -Inuit shared kinship names as the British families, cultural evolution started to crack and fall apart -Armchair Anthropologists began to perform field work to explore because of this startling idea 9/17/09 What is Fieldwork? -19 th century Anthropology of cultural evolution, their theories were proved false, investigate many cultures of different kinds, Anthropologist’s theories post armchair come from What is an Ethnographer -term for anthropological dig collection data about a culture Ethnography -data collected about a particular culture, analyzed information Participant Observation -The fieldworker participates with everything they can with the culture ,i.e. lives with the culture and communicates with the people in their language, eats their food and customs , they can never be an insider, participate as fully as possible “Culture Shock” -disorientating feeling of confusion, different climate, strange faces and ideas, foreign feeling of a culture to you, when they become more comfortable, they start to see from the ennic point of
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Anthro Study Guide Quiz 2 - 9/15/09 What is Uni-Lineal...

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