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13 Periodic Trends 1

# 13 Periodic Trends 1 - In which shell will an electron most...

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1 1 In which shell will an electron most likely be located furthest from the nucleus of an atom and therefore have the smallest attraction to the positively charged nucleus? A) n = 1 B) n = 2 C) n = 3 D) n = 4 2 Radial Probability Density Ψ (r, θ , φ ) = amplitude of an electron wave function at a point in space located (r, θ , φ ) relative to the nucleus of an atom. Ψ 2 (r, θ , φ ) = electron probability density at that point r 2 Ψ 2 (r) = radial electron probability density Summed over all angles θ and φ r 2 appears because the surface area of a sphere increases as the square of the radius Surface area = 4 r 2

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2 3 Electron Radial Probability Densities Notice: The shell structure n most probable radius 1 1 Bohr 2 4 - 5 Bohr 3 10 – 12 Bohr n = 1 2 3 4 In which shell will an electron most likely be located furthest from the nucleus of an atom and therefore have the smallest attraction to the positively charged nucleus? A) n = 1 B) n = 2 C) n = 3 D) n = 4 Interaction decreases as the distance increases! Coulomb’s Force Law Coulomb’s Energy Law
3 5 F = electrical force V = electrical potential energy Q 1 = charge on particle 1 Q 2 = charge on particle 2 d = distance between particles 1 and 2 Opposite charges attract each other, and lower the energy. Like charges repel each other, and increase the energy. The key to understanding Periodic Properties Coulombs Energy Law d Q Q V 2 1 Coulombs Force Law 2 2 1 d Q Q F See MSJ p. 93 6 What do you expect? If the nuclear charge increases, the size of an atom will _____________ and the ionization energy will _____________. A) increase, increase B) increase, decrease C) decrease, increase D) decrease, decrease

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4 7 If an electron is added to an atom, the electron-electron repulsion will increase
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