Handout 6 - BILD 3 Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM HANDOUT...

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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM HANDOUT 6 I. Terms/phrases to know Lecture 16 (11-03-08) o Extended phenotype o Cis-regulatory elements o Extended phenotype o Behavior Stereotypical Voluntary Learning o Game theory o Strategy (biological context) Lecture 17 (11-05-08) o Evolutionarily stable strategy Lecture 18 (11-07-08) o Altruism o Kin selection Page 1
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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM o Inclusive fitness o Pedigree o Coefficient of relationship II. Important concepts Quick review : intron/exon and mRNA processing o Central dogma in biology Page 2
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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM o When DNA is transcribed into RNA, the pre-edited version is called the pre- mRNA , which contains many exons and introns (non-protein coding regions) o During mRNA processing, the introns are spliced (or cut) out of the sequence to result in a fully-edited mRNA that will then be translated into proteins Master control genes – capable of inducing developmental pathways in wide variety of organisms, even though developmental pathways may differ o Master control gene = gene + cis regulatory elements (have patterns of regulation that determines gene’s expression in different tissues and at different times of development) o Example: homeobox genes Have not changed much in number or in position It is the regulatory regions (around the gene) that have undergone changes Selection of pre-existing genetic variation o Freshwater stickleback fish in North America and northern Europe Evolved/diverged from marine relatives due to glacial retreats that left behind new freshwater lakes Difference between freshwater sticklebacks and their marine relatives: freshwater ones have little or no bony plates (similar to scales) due to point mutation at the EDA (ectodysplasin) gene EDA is a signaling molecule and its gene was identified through numerous crosses and use of genetic markers It is believed that there is a polymorphism for freshwater alleles in marine population and these are maintained through some type of balancing selection In freshwater populations, low plate alleles (synthesizes little or no EDA molecules low formation of bony plates) are directionally- selected for because… i. There is no need for freshwater sticklebacks to have bony plates to defend themselves against the usual marine predators Page 3
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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM ii. It is energetically more favorable not to have to
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Handout 6 - BILD 3 Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM HANDOUT...

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