Handout 7 - B ILD 3 Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM...

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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM HANDOUT 7 I. Terms/phrases to know Lecture 19 (11-10-08) o Eusocial o Nepotism o Reciprocal altruism Lecture 20 (11-12-08) o Prisoner’s dilemma game o Tit-for-tat strategy o Quadrupedal Lecture 21 (11-14-08) o Pygmy o Mitochondrial DNA o Indigenous II. Important concepts Coefficients of relationship (r) o Diploid/diploid mating Example: humans, termites, naked mole rats, etc. Page 1
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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM o Haploid/diploid mating Example: hymenoptera (bees) Only diploid queen reproduces by mating with a haploid male Because diploid females have a high coefficient of relatedness (r=3/4) to each other, they would want to work for the colony and help raise a sister as the new queen that can have offsprings of her own If females were to mate with a haploid male, their r value with their female offsprings would only be ½ so there is a selective pressure to be sterile and to leave the reproducing to the queen Altruistic behavior o What is driving force of altruistic behavior in… Haploid/diploid population: __________________________________________ Page 2
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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM Diploid/diploid population: __________________________________________ o Is it heritable? If it involves death, altruistic behavior is only heritable if the inclusive fitness, which is Darwinian fitness of individual + (relative’s fitness x r), is high so that there is a good chance of the alleles of altruistic behavior will be passed on However, if cost of behavior is zero and it benefits relatives, there will be selective pressure to increase the frequency of alleles involved with it o Belding ground squirrels Individuals will give alarm calls when they see predators approaching Females usually give alarm calls while most males do not Why? o Different dispersal pattern as females and males mature! Females tend to stay close to own colonies so they are surrounded by relatives (hence, more inclined to give alarm calls to warn her kin of predators) Males typically migrate to other colonies so they are not related to members of those groups (therefore, less likely to give alarm calls) These squirrels demonstrate that the cost of altruistic behavior has driven the evolution of sex-limited behavioral differences in alarm-call giving o 2 mechanisms that can lead to altruistic behavior Kin selection (discussed above and in handout 6) Reciprocal altruism – process by which Darwinian fitness of members of a group can be increased if benefits of altruistic behavior go in both directions (benefits of altruistic behavior can extend beyond one’s immediate relatives to unrelated individuals of the same species or even to different species) Page 3
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BILD 3 – Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM Provides mechanism by which selection for individual
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2009 for the course BICD BILD 3 taught by Professor Wills during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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Handout 7 - B ILD 3 Fall 2008 Section: Mon 9-9:50 AM...

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