HM_PP_Slides_Ch4.ppt - Chapter 4 Individuals in Schools Motivation \u00a9 Hoy 2003 2008 2011 Individuals are motivated by their \u2022 Needs \u2022 Beliefs \u2022

HM_PP_Slides_Ch4.ppt - Chapter 4 Individuals in Schools...

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Chapter 4 Individuals in Schools: Motivation © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011
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Individuals are motivated by their: Needs Beliefs Goals © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011
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I Maslow s Theory of Needs Assumptions: 1. Individual needs are universal and arranged in a hierarchy. 2. Unfilled needs lead individuals to focus on those needs. 3. Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become strong motivators. Needs: 4. Physiological Needs (Air, Food, Sleep, etc.) 5. Safety and Security Needs (Protection against danger and threat) 6. Belongingness Needs (Belonging to groups, having friends, etc.) 7. Esteem Needs (Self-respect and the respect of others) 8. Self-Actualization Needs (Being all you can be; finding potential) © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011
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Theories of Motivation: Needs Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Basic set of human needs arranged in a hierarchical order Level 1: Physiological Needs Level 2: Safety and Security Level 3: Belonging, Love, and Social Activities Level 4: Esteem Level 5: Self-actualization or self-fulfillment © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011
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Theories of Motivation: Needs II Herzberg s Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Two Types of Needs Assumptions: 1. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separate factors, not opposites. 2. Factors that produce satisfaction are different from those that promote dissatisfaction. •Motivators are generally intrinsic factors such as achievement and the work itself. •Hygiene factors are generally extrinsic factors such as salary and working conditions. 3. Motivators are higher level needs and tend to promote satisfaction. 4. Hygiene factors are lower level needs and tend to promote dissatisfaction © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011
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Theories of Motivation: Needs Herzberg s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygienes Motivators © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011 Interpersonal relations (with subordinates) Interpersonal relations (with peers) Supervision (technical) Policy and administration Working conditions Personal life Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Dissatisfaction Satisfaction
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Theories of Motivation: Needs III McClelland s Achievement-Need Theory Assumptions: 1. The prospect of achievement motivates more than extrinsic rewards. 2. Motives are learned and when people learn to value achievement, it becomes a strong motivator. To instill motivation: • Place people in situation where they can succeed. • Emphasize setting reasonable and achievable goals. • Get people to take responsibility for their actions. • Provide clear and constructive feedback on performance. 3. When achievement motivation is high, then individuals set high, but achievable goals, value and use feedback, have a single-minded absorption with task accomplishment. © Hoy, 2003, 2008, 2011
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Theories of Motivation: Needs IV Need for Autonomy 1. Individuals have a need to have a choice in what they do and how they do it; they need to be in charge of their own lives.
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