CHAPTER 12 COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS Four Caveats for Educational Administrators • Communication is difficult to isolate from other administrative processes. • Not all school problems involve miscommunication. • Communication reveals, hides, and eliminates problems. • Communication is a process that evokes action but is far from the substance of good administration. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS Key Terms – Communication – sharing ideas or attitudes in ways that produce a degree of understanding between two or more people. – Message – the verbal or non-verbal cues or symbols that each communicator conveys. – Channel – the vehicle, medium, or form in which a message travels. – Sender – the person or generalized source sending a message – Receiver – the destination of the message or the individual or deciphers it. – Transmission – the actual sending and receiving of messages through designated channels or media. – Encoding – using cognitive structures and processes to convert the intended message into symbolic form by the sender. – Decoding – using cognitive structures and processes to retranslate the message by the receiver. – Feedback – the message sent in response to the initial message; information that enables corrections (Ch. 1). – Communication effects – the outcomes of the message exchange process. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Sender (source, speaker, communicator) Receiver (reader, listener, communicator) Encoding Decoding Message In Channel Feedback General Model of Communication
COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS One-way communication • Unilateral - initiated by the sender and terminated by the receiver – Common examples in schools • Classroom lecture • Exhortation by the principal • PA announcements • Administrative directive – Advantages • Emphasizes the skills of the sender and encourages administrators and teachers to think through, accurately articulate, and provide clarity to their ideas • Imply strong linkages between communication behavior and action W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS Two-way communication • Reciprocal – all participants in the process initiate and receive messages – Common forms in schools • Conversation • Inquiry • Debate • Instruction (Socratic Method) W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOLS Individual Communication Competence • Sending Skills – Use appropriate direct language • Avoid jargon and complex concepts – Information must be clear and complete • Build on or reorganize receiver’s cognitive schema – Minimize noise from the physical or psychological environment – Use multiple and appropriate channels of media – Use face-to-face communication and redundancy when communicating complex messages W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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