HM_PP_Slides_Ch1.ppt - Chapter 1 The School as a Social System W K Hoy \u00a9 2003 2008 2011 Chapter 1 The School as a Social System What is Organizational

HM_PP_Slides_Ch1.ppt - Chapter 1 The School as a Social...

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W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Chapter 1The School as aSocial System
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W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011What is Organizational Theory?A set of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and generalizations that describes and explains patternsof behavior in organizations.Elements of Theory:ConceptsGeneralizations AssumptionsPurposes of Theory:Provide an explanation of how things generally work.Guide researchGuide practiceHypotheses: Conjectural statements that explain relationships.Use to test theories.Guide researchScientific Knowledge:Propositions supported by systematic research.Purpose of Science: To test theory and to provide reliable explanation.Chapter 1: The School as a Social System
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W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Theory Figure 1.1: Theory-Research Relation (ãHoy 2007) Concepts Concepts Hypotheses Empirical Testing Principles Assumptions And Generalizations Variables
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W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011I. Rational-Systems Perspective: A Machine ModelScientific Management (The Beginning)Rational-Systems PerspectiveFrederick Taylor-Scientific Management•Time and Motion Studies•Standardization•Exception Principle•Division of Labor•Span of ControlHenri Fayol-Functions of Administration•PlanningOrganizing•Commanding •Coordinating•ControllingLuther Gulick--Functions of the Executive•POSDCoRB(A Contemporary View of Scientific Management)Goals--Organizations exist to attain collective goalsDivision of Laborfor efficiencySpecializationfor expertiseStandardizationfor routine performanceFormalizationfor uniformity and coordinationHierarchyfor unity of command and coordinationSpan of Controlfor effective supervisionException Principleto free superiors from routineCoordinationfor administrative effectivenessFormal Organizationis the official blueprint of the structure that guarantees efficiency and effectiveness. The formal organization is thekey to organizational effectiveness. Historical Development of Theory and Thought in Administration
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W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011II. Natural-Systems Perspective: An Organic ModelHuman Relations (The Beginning)Mary Parker FollettTaylor antagonist and human relations advocateHawthorne Studies•Illumination Studies--three studies•Elton Mayo--more studies(1927-32)•Hawthorne EffectInformal Organization•Norms•Grapevine•Informal leaders•CliquesInformal NormsNo squealingNo rate busting
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  • Sociology, Organizational studies and human resource management, Social System, W. K. Hoy

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