W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 . Chapter 3 Structure in Schools
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Model of Bureaucracy Max Weber (1947) Division of Labor Division of labor leads to specialization and specialization promotes expertise. Impersonal Orientation Decisions based on facts, not feelings or biases. Hierarchy of Authority - Systems of superiors and subordinates Hierarchy promotes disciplined compliance and coordination. Rules and Regulations Formalization ensures stability and uniformity of behavior. Career Orientation Career orientation-promotion according to seniority, achievement, or both Efficiency Bureaucracy maximizes rational decision-making and administrative efficiency
Critique of Weber ’ s Model W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Function Expertise Rationality Compliance and Coordination Continuity and Stability Incentive Characteristic Division of Labor Impersonal Orientation Hierarchy of Authority Rules and Regulations Career Orientation Dysfunction Boredom Lack of morale Communication blocks Rigidity and goal displacement Conflict between achievement and seniority
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Functions and Dysfunctions of Rules Functions Dysfunctions Explication Reinforce Apathy Screening Goal displacement Legitimate Punishment Create legalism Leeway Indulgency
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Informal Organization Informal organization is the spontaneous development of a social structure and culture within a formal organization--it is a “ shadow organization. ” How does the informal organizations develop? Activities, interactions, and sentiments form the following: • Informal structure • Division into cliques • Informal norms • Personal relations • Informal communication; the grapevine • Informal leadership
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Formal vs. Informal Structure Formal System Hierarchy Division of Labor Formalization Impersonality “ Chain of command ” Informal System Informal structure Division into cliques Informal norms Personal relations “ Grapevine ”
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Other Criticisms of Bureaucracy 1. Dual Structure Is the guiding principal of bureaucracy. Authority based on expertise or based on rules and discipline? 2. Feminist Critique Does bureaucracy perpetuate male values at the expense of female ones? Hierarchy, impersonality, independence, rationality, competition, centralized VS.
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