W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Chapter 10 Decision Making
Overview W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 1. Optimizing Model 2. Satisficing Model 3. Muddling Model 4. Mixed Scanning Model 5. Contingency Model
I The Classical Model: Optimizing W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Optimizing: Make the Best Decision 1. Define the Problems 2. Establish Goals and Objectives 3. Generate all Possible Alternatives 4. Consider the Consequences of all Alternatives 5. Evaluate all Alternatives 6. Select the Best Alternative 7. Implement and Evaluate the Decision Questions: Can you make the Best Decision? Why?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Assumption One: Administrative decision making is a dynamic process that solves some organizational problems and creates others. • Always more problems • No final solutions Assumption Two : Complete rationality in decision making is impossible; Thus, administrators seek to satisfice rather than optimize . Why? • Optimize--the Best Decision • Satisfice-- “ Good Enough ” • Bounded Rationality--Best of a narrow set of alternatives. Some Decision Making Assumptions
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Decision Making Assumptions Assumption Three : Values are an integral part of decision making. Assumption Four : Decision making is a general pattern of action found in the rational administration of all tasks and functions. • Define the problem • Analyze the difficulties in the situation • Establish criteria for a satisfactory decision • Develop a strategy of action • Initiate a plan of action • Evaluate the outcomes • Tasks of Administration: C&I, supervision, finance & business, PR, etc. • Functions of Administration: policy, resources, executive action
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 II The Administrative Model: Satisficing Satisficing: Make a Satisfactory Decision Situation Recognize and Define the Problem Analyze the Difficulties •Get the Relevant Facts •Classify the Problem • Specify Problem Establish Criteria for a Satisfactory Solution Develop a Plan of Action •Consider Alternatives •Weigh Consequences of Each Alternative •Deliberate •Select Course of Action Initiate Action Plan •Program •Communicate •Monitor •Appraise
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 II Steps in Administrative Model: Satisficing Step 1: Recognize and Define the Problem or Issue • Be sensitive to difficulties. • Define the problem: conceptualize it. • Don ’ t define problem either too narrowly or broadly. • What is the short-term problem? • What is the long-term problem?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Satisficing Step 2: Analyze the Difficulties in Existing Situation • Classify the problem. • New problem or Old? • Generic or Unique? • Routine or Novel? • Two common mistakes: • Treat routine problem as new problem. • Treat new problem as an old one. • Get the Relevant Facts • What is involved? • Why? • Where? And When? • To what extent?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Satisficing Step 3: Establish Criteria for a Satisfactory Outcome • What are the minimum objectives to be achieved.
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