bio_quiz_6

bio_quiz_6 - BIO LECTURE 6 QUIZ 1. Describe the parts of...

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BIO LECTURE 6 QUIZ 1. Describe the parts of the brain (cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellum, medulla, pons, corpus callosum) and their basic functions, and how they relate to one another. a. Embryologically, the vertebrate brain begins as a small tube that develops into 3 parts: hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. i. Midbrain controlled vision 1. reticular formation- “alert system” ii. Forebrain (a.k.a. cerebrum ) dealt with the sense of smell 1. Cerebral cortex - known as the grey matter, does NOT contain myelin a. the corpus callosum - connects the right and left hemispheres, has myelin (white matter) 2. Cerebrum - has lobes which consist of the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, (if one fails, then the other sense use more neural signals) 3. Thalamus - the grey matter that receives almost all except olfactory sensory input and decides where to send it 4. limbic system - has no borders a. hypothalamus - maintains homeostasis does a lot, regulates hunger, thirst, temperature b. amygdale - large inputs of emotions c. hippocampus - long term memory (looks like a horse) the strongest function is smell iii. Hindbrain 1. Medulla - embryonic myensephalon a. Also vital function center- heart rate and respiration b. If the medulla dies results in brain death, also can continue to function without any other area/ part of the brain working 2. Pons (located above the medulla) a. influences transitions b/w sleep and wakefulness and b/w stages of sleep b. connector to spinal cord 3. Cerebellum a. embryonic metencephalon- maintains balance and equilibrium, has the most space for the function of our hands than any other organ in our body, the brain tells the muscles what to do 2. Identify the parts of a neuron, the different types of neurons and how these connect to one another- describe and draw a reflex arc. Describe how nerve impulses are transmitted along a nerve and across a synapse. a. General structure i. Cell body- the center where the nucleus is located ii. Dendrite- carries impulses to the cell body
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iii. Axon- away from the cell body, surrounded by myelin 1. myelin sheath- a larger tube around the axon, is white and shiny, has a fatty substance, the function speeds up the nerve impulse contractions, made by Schwann cells, cause multiple sclerosis if dysfunctional b. Types of neurons i. Sensory- nerves carry into the CNS from receptors, part of the dendrite ii. Motor- nerves that carry information to effectors from CNS iii. Connector (interneuron) in the CNS c. Impulses are transmitted along the nerve (dendrite cell body axon) – electrical i. Depolarization of membrane (charge changes) – charge difference between inside and outside a voltage difference; requires
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bio_quiz_6 - BIO LECTURE 6 QUIZ 1. Describe the parts of...

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