final_bio_outcomes_(complete)

final_bio_outcomes_(complete) - Jamie Collins Spring 2006...

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Jamie Collins Spring 2006 Biology Dr. Becker BIO FINAL OUTCOMES 1. Apply the scientific methods to experimentation; identify independent, dependent and controlled variables; apply the SOAP method to analysis of patient problems. Scientific Method: - observation - hypothesis: statement based on observation - experiments: test to see if hypothesis is correct - conclusions: if experiment verifies hypothesis Types of variables: - Independent : variable we expect will change - Dependent : outcome, what changes, depends on independent variable - Controlled variables : things to prevent from changing the outcome Ex: Blood pressure drug : Independent - new drug Dependent – blood pressure Controlled – things that affect blood pressure Diabetes Independent – new drug Dependent – sugar Controlled – old drug *best studies are done by blinded experiments * SOAP S ubjective – Patient complaining about, not measurable O bjective – measurable data A ssessment – what’s going on P lan – recommendation 2. Define covalent (non-polar and polar), ionic and hydrogen bonds and distinguish among them. Collins 1
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Jamie Collins Spring 2006 Biology Dr. Becker Ionic bonds – metal and nonmetals, between positive and negative ions, within molecules Covalent bonds – electrons are shared Polar covalent (carbons always form a covalent bond), electrons are pulled more closely to one atom than the other, which makes that atom more negative – strong electrons – N,O,P Non-polar covalent – electrons are in middle of bond, equally shared, therefore no polarity. Hydrogen bonds – bonds between H and an electronegative atom, between molecules which makes them easier to break. 3. Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Hydrophobic – hates water Hydrophilic – loves water 4. Explain why water is a good solvent for living systems. Water causes dissociation of ionically bonded molecules; bonds are hydrophilic 5. Explain how buffers maintain constant pH; describe how pH changes affect molecular bonding. Buffers maintain a constant pH by removing/adding protons. They do not maintain a neutral pH. 6. Define monomer and polymer. Discuss how monomers are bonded to one another to form biological molecules (dehydration synthesis). Describe the process of hydrolysis. Monomers – individual units Polymers – many individual units bonded to one another Dehydration Synthesis – removal of water, water is a product, builds molecules Collins 2
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Jamie Collins Spring 2006 Biology Dr. Becker Hydrolysis – breaks up molecules, water is a reactant 7. Identify functional groups – amines, carboxylic acids, hydrophobic chains. Predict whether a functional group will cause a molecule to be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Define lipophilic. Lipophilic –
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2009 for the course BIO 1100 taught by Professor Becker during the Spring '08 term at STLCOP.

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final_bio_outcomes_(complete) - Jamie Collins Spring 2006...

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