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Notes 10-8-09

# Notes 10-8-09 - • Snell’s Law • Mode conversion 1.3...

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GEOL 240Lxg Notes 10-8-09 Samoa Earthquake –subduction zone, magnitude 8.0, tension, normal fault, big tsunami , 10 km deep 1.1 Body waves o P waves (compressional waves): Travel at speeds of 6-8 km/s through the earth’s interior. Particle motion is parallel to direction of propagation. Also called primary waves (thus the P). similar to sound waves. o S waves (shear waves) Travel at speeds of 3-5 km/s through the earth’s interior. Particle motion is perpendicular to direction of propagation. Also called secondary waves (thus the S). Do not pass through liquids. Surface waves – Travel at speeds less than 3-4 km/s. They consist of dispersed wave trains (different frequencies travel at different velocities) that travel around the earth at its surface. o Rayleigh waves Particle motion is horizontal and perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

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o Love waves Particle motion is retrograde elliptical in direction of propagation.

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Unformatted text preview: • Snell’s Law • Mode conversion 1.3 SV/SH • Mode conversion 1.4 P/SV • No mode conversion 1.5 SH • Total Internal Reflection 1.6 o Example with light Fish tank o Example with air On a road o Example with water In a pool • Earth with increasing • P-wave and s-wave • Structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle • Only known the structure of the earth since the 1920’s • Earth has a layered structure (onion) base on composition • 3 main layers o Crust Moho o Mantle o Core • Crust o Continental Crust Lower density, quartz SiO2, feldspars, basalt, variable thickness (10-50 km) o Oceanic crust Higher density, basalt, constant thickness (about 10km) The crust (isostacy) floats on the denser mantle (ultra mafic minerals – Olivine ( Mg , Fe ) 2 Si O 4 , Pylaxene (Mg,Fe)SiO 3 ) below...
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Notes 10-8-09 - • Snell’s Law • Mode conversion 1.3...

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