Notes 10-13-09

Notes 10-13-09 - lowest part of mantle coming up Uniform...

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GEOL 240Lxg Notes 10-13-09 Earthquakes make seismic waves o Body waves P waves Mode conversion SV S waves SV o Mode conversion P SH o Do not mode convert o Surface waves Rayleigh waves Always have on any surface Love waves SH waves trapped in the crust by total internal reflection Require a low velocity surface layer Earth has a low velocity crust 2.1 Crust Lowest density of all the layers Low density silicates Floats on denser mantle “isostacy” o Continental Lowest density
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Variable thickness Deeper under mountains Shallower under low lying planes White rocks – quartz, feldspar o Oceanic Higher density Not much quartz or feldspar Dark/black rocks – basalt, mostly ultramafic minerals, olivine Basalt comes out of the mantle
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Unformatted text preview: lowest part of mantle coming up Uniform thickness about 10km 2.2 Mantle 2.3 Upper mantle o Moho 650km Carbon o Graphite o Coal o Diamond Temperature in Earth 2.4 Core o Mostly iron, nickel (10%), sulfur (5%) o Same composition Liquid outer core Solid inner core Transmits shear waves Evidence that the mantle is made up of ultramafic rocks o Vp, Vs, P agree with ultramafic rocks at the temperatures and pressure in Earth interior o Xenoliths in hot spot basalts are ultramafic rocks o Xenoliths in Kimberlite volcanoes (gas volcanoes) Know source is deep because they contain diamonds Only stable below about 100km depth...
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2009 for the course GEOL 240Lxg at USC.

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Notes 10-13-09 - lowest part of mantle coming up Uniform...

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