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# C2_1 - ABSTRACT CONTENT PAGE S/NO CONTENT PAGE NO 1 2 3 4 5...

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ABSTRACT

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CONTENT PAGE S/NO CONTENT PAGE NO 1. Covering Page i 2. Abstract ii 3. Objectives 4. Introduction 5. Theory 6. Equipment 7. Experimental Procedures 8. Results 9. Calculations 10. Discussions 11. Conclusion 12. References
13. Appendices 3. OBJECTIVES The objective of the experiment is to understand the behaviour of load-deformation of statically determinate and indeterminate truss models. 4. INTRODUCTION A truss is a form of structural analysis which can be approximated by one which contains bars which have only axial stiffness. It is one of the major types of engineering structures. It is capable of providing a practical and economical means in analyzing complex building structures and bridges and it is usually made of pin-connected members located at its joints. Other forms of structural models use in structural analysis are frames, plates and shells. 5. THEORY A truss consists of straight members connected at extremities joints. A truss in a space framework, may be in tension or compression. Examples of some systems of trusses are shown below :

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Figure 1. A truss is said to be a rigid truss, if when under an applied force, the truss does not collapse. However, in reality, when under an applied force, small deformations are likely to occur in at least one of the members. The number of joints in a truss and the numbers of members present in truss is related by the given equation m = 2n -3 where m is the number of members and n is the numbers of joints. A truss is statically determinate if the forces in all the internal members of the truss can be calculated by considering equilibrium at the joints. ie. all the unknown may be solved by considering equilibrium at the joints. It is also important to note that computed internal member forces are independent of the material of which the structure has been constructed. Statically determinate structures are normally introducted in structures because they are simple, may be used to solved complex statically indeterminate structures by reducing them into simple statically determinate structures, and they are also relatively easier to build. A truss is statically indeterminate if the forces in the internal members of the truss cannot be calculated by considering equilibrium at the joints, in that the number of unknown forces to be calculated is more than the number of equilibrium equations derived. In the context of truss structure model, the truss may be completely constrained, partially constrained or improperly constrained. A completely constrained truss model is one that is fixed that is to say that the entire rigid truss will not be displaced. A truss may be completely constrained and still be statically determinate if the number of unknowns is equal to the number of equations of equilibrium. If the condition is not satisfied then we have a statically indeterminate truss structure that is completely constrained. An example of a completely constrained truss model is shown in the figure below : Figure 2
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