# E4_1 - Contents 1 1 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1 2 1 2.1...

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Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Objectives 1 2. Theory 1 2.1. Properties Of An Ideal Operational Amplifier 1 2.2. Virtual Ground for Inverting Feedback Op-Amp 2 2.3. Gain of Inverting Feedback Op-Amp 2 2.4. Frequency Response of Operational Amplifier 3 3. Procedures 3 5. Discussion 10 5.1. Gain Of Negative Feedback Op-Amp 10 5.2. D.C. Offset 10 5.3. Frequency Response 11 5.3. Virtual Ground 11 6. Precaution 11 7. Conclusion 12 8. References 12 9. Appendix: Experimental Procedures i

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Contents 13 ii
1. Introduction With the advance of manufacturing technology, entire electronic circuits can be integrated into a single piece of semiconductor. They are called Integrated Circuits or I.C. and they cut down both cost and energy. Circuits consisting of I.C. are easier to trouble-shoot than circuits consisting of individual components. An example of a device that is conveniently packaged is the Operation Amplifier(op- amp). In this experiment, we have used LM741 1 . This is an amplifier circuit that approximate to the ideal Op-amp. 1.1 Objectives The objectives of this experiment are: i) To make use of bread board to construct an negative feedback operational amplifier circuit. ii) To study the above circuit's input voltage relationship with its output voltage. iii) To investigate the frequency response of LM471. 2. Theory 2.1. Properties Of An Ideal Operational Amplifier An ideal Op-amp has the following properties: i) The open loop voltage gain of Op-amp is infinite. ii) It has an infinite input resistance. The means that the ideal Op-amp does not draw any current from the input signal. iii) There is no output resistance. Therefore output voltage is independent of the load connected. iv) It has an infinite bandwidth, i.e. there is no phase shift between input and output signals for all frequencies. Such ideal Op-amp does not exist in real life. However, LM741 does have properties that match closely to the above listed properties of an ideal Op- amp. 1 LM741 is manufactured by National Semiconductor where Fairchild is now its sub-

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## This note was uploaded on 10/18/2009 for the course ECONS 111 taught by Professor Yo during the Spring '09 term at Nassau CC.

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E4_1 - Contents 1 1 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1 2 1 2.1...

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