E6_2 - FORMAL REPORT E6 : ENERGY, POWER AND POWER FACTOR OF...

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FORMAL REPORT E6 : ENERGY, POWER AND POWER FACTOR OF A FAN MOTOR TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. OBJECTIVES 3. THEORY 4. EQUIPMENT 5. CONNECTION DIAGRAM 6. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 7. LOG SHEET AND EXPERIMENT DISCUSSIONS 8. GRAPHS 9. FORMAL REPORT DISCUSSIONS 10. CONCLUSIONS 11. REFERENCES 1. INTRODUCTION
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The electrical appliance industry have always strived to make their products more efficient as well as cut production costs. In most cases, the best way for the products to satisfy consumer preferences is in terms of versatility. For example, in the cases of fans, the speed of the fan preferred by each consumer is different and hence, having a fan that the consumer can select its operating power to his fancy would increase the demand of the fan in the market. There are two types of currents that are used, namely direct current ( d.c.) and alternating current (a.c.). However, a.c. is the most commonly used form of current in practical applications. If the firm is able to lower the current in which the fan runs on, wire and insulator costs could be minimized and hence, reduces production costs. The increased efficiency due to a reduction in energy loss would also make the product more attractive to consumers. Hence, in the following experiment, we shall try to study the relationship between the current flow, power and power factor of an everyday electrical appliance - the fan motor and hence, come to a better understanding of the preferred combinations of the 3 factors above to improve efficiency. 2. OBJECTIVES Basically while doing this experiment, there are two objectives that we have to keep in mind. The first is to use an energy meter ( also known as kilowatt hour meter), two ammeters, a voltmeter and a phase angle meter to measure the changes in current and the voltage across the domestic fan when it is set at different speeds ( low, medium, high). The second objective is to observe the effect of a power factor correction capacitor on the supplied current (Is). 3. THEORY The instantaneous power consumed in the electric circuit is the product of the instantaneous voltage and current. Unlike the power given in a D.C. circuit whereby power P = V.I, the average power consumed in a linear A.C. circuit with sinusoidal supply is given by <P >= V rms .I rms .cos φ where V rms is the root mean square voltage I rms is the root mean square current φ is the phase displacement between the voltage and the current cos φ is the power factor ( pf ) of the circuit. The apparent power of the circuit is the product of V rms and I rms ( unit: voltamperes). It is clear that <P> can only be smaller or equal to the apparent power. <P> is equal to the apparent power only when the current and voltage is in phase with each other.( ie. phase displacement is zero).
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Therefore, since power factor pf is the ratio of the average power to apparent power, it can never be greater than 1.
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E6_2 - FORMAL REPORT E6 : ENERGY, POWER AND POWER FACTOR OF...

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