Lab C2 - Coagulation Treatment of Raw Water Using Precipitation

Lab C2 - Coagulation Treatment of Raw Water Using Precipitation

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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY 1 ST YEAR COMMON ENGINEERING COURSE Experiment C2 Coagulation Treatment of Raw Water Using Precipitation Name: Pang Jing Jie Keith Group: BL 07 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS No. Page No. 1 Objectives…………………………………………………………………… 3 2 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 3 3 Theory………………………………………………………………….……. 4 4 Procedure and Method……………………………………………………… 8 5 Analysis………………………………………………………………………. 9 6 Inaccuracies………………. ..…….………………. .………………………… 10 7 Observations…………………………………………………………………. 10 8 Questions…….……………….……………………………………………… 11 9 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 14 10 References…………………………………………………………………… 14 2
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1. Objectives 1) To perform a jar test and show the water works processes of destablisation, coagulation and flocculation of clays, humic acids and harmful bacteria, by forming an aluminium floc. 2) To measure the results in term of the efficiency in removing turbidity and colour. 3) To measure the effect when varying the pH. 4) To give a conclusion for the graph of –Log[Al] vs. pH distribution of the precipitated aluminium. 5) Learning objectives: know what a colloid is how the colloid could be destabilized by a trivalent cation how an aluminium salt precipitates as a pH dependent hydroxide how mechanical manipulation can modify the precipitate to improve the following seperation process 2. Introduction Precipitation is the process by which a substance is separated out of a solution as a solid either by the action of gravity or through a chemical reaction that forms an insoluble compound out of two or more soluble compounds. The overall water treatment process incorporates: colloid destabilization by a trivalent cation; precipitation of the cation as a hydroxide; and mechanical/chemical treatment of the precipitate as a flocculating mass that can be removed by a filter or membrane prior to disinfection. These processes reduce bacterial levels to the WHO standard, helping to save the lives of millions of people per year throughout the world. The success of a chemical precipitation process relies on multiple factors, including the type and concentration of ionic metals present in solution, the precipitant used, the reaction conditions (especially the pH of the solution), the presence of other constituents that may inhibit the precipitation reaction and also the addition of a high molecular weight cationic polyelectrolyte (CPE) which ‘stregthens’ the floc and helps it to withstand the shear effects of stirring. The jar test is intended to simulate the coagulation/flocculation process in a water
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2009 for the course ECONS 111 taught by Professor Yo during the Spring '09 term at Nassau CC.

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Lab C2 - Coagulation Treatment of Raw Water Using Precipitation

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