lab_c2 - NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY 1 ST YEAR COMMON...

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Unformatted text preview: NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY 1 ST YEAR COMMON ENGINEERING COURSE Experiment C2 Coagulation Treatment of Raw Water Using Precipitation Name: Ang Mei Ting Group: BL 07 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS No. Page No. 1 Objectives…………………………………………………………………… 3 2 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 3 3 Theory………………………………………………………………….……. 4 4 Procedure and Method……………………………………………………… 8 5 Analysis………………………………………………………………………. 9 6 Results……………………………………………….....……………………. 10 7 Limitations and Comments…….………………..………………………… 11 8 Observations…………………………………………………………………. 11 9 Graphs…………………………………………………….…………………. 12 10 Questions…….……………………………………………………………… 14 11 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 16 12 References…………………………………………………………………… 17 2 1. Objectives 1) To perform a jar test and show the water works processes of destablisation, coagulation and flocculation of clays, humic acids and harmful bacteria, by forming an aluminium floc. 2) To measure the results in term of the efficiency in removing turbidity and colour. 3) To measure the effect when varying the pH. 4) To give a conclusion for the graph of –Log[Al] vs. pH distribution of the precipitated aluminium. Learning objectives: • know what a colloid is • how the colloid could be destabilized by a trivalent cation • how an aluminium salt precipitates as a pH dependent hydroxide • how mechanical manipulation can modify the precipitate to improve the following seperation process 2. Introduction Precipitation is the chemical conversion of soluble substances (including metals) into insoluble particles. Coagulation and flocculation causes a chemical reaction that promotes the formation, agglomeration or clumping of such particles to facilitate their removal from solution. The effectiveness of a chemical precipitation process is dependent on several factors, including the type and concentration of ionic metals present in solution, the precipitant used, the reaction conditions (especially the pH of the solution), and the presence of other constituents that may inhibit the precipitation reaction. Raw water containing clays, coloured organics, and harmful bacteria, is made clear enough for the filtration and the final stage disinfection by ozone or chlorine. The whole process includes: colloid destabilization by a trivalent cation; precipitaton as a flocculating mass that can then be removed by a filter or membrane prior to disinfection. flocculating mass that can then be removed by a filter or membrane prior to disinfection....
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2009 for the course ECONS 111 taught by Professor Yo during the Spring '09 term at Nassau CC.

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lab_c2 - NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY 1 ST YEAR COMMON...

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