M4_1 - CONTENTS I. O BJECTIVES

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Unformatted text preview: CONTENTS I. O BJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................................4 T HERE ARE TWO MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THIS LABORATORY :.......................................................................................4 ( A ) T O KNOW HOW TO USE THE RIGHT MICROSCOPIC METHODS TO VIEW THE MICROSTRUCTURES OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS . ......................................................................................................................................................................4 ( B ) T O STUDY THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MICROSTRUCTURES THAT EXIST FOR THESE MATERIALS AND TO LEARN TO IDENTITY THEM ..................................................................................................................................................4 II. I NTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................4 M ATERIALS ARE SUBSTANCES OF WHICH SOMETHING IS COMPOSED OR MADE . M ATERIALS ARE EVERYWHERE ABOUT US SINCE PRODUCTS ARE MADE OF MATERIALS . T HERE ARE MANY KINDS OF MATERIALS . S OME OF THE COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED MATERIALS ARE WOOD , CONCRETE , BRICK , STEEL , PLASTIC , RUBBER , ALUMINUM , COPPER AND PAPER . B ECAUSE OF CONSTANT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT , NEW MATERIALS ARE FREQUENTLY BEING CREATED .....................5 M ATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IS A SCIENCE THAT IS CONCERNED WITH THE SEARCH FOR BASIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE , PROPERTIES , PROCESSING OF MATERIALS , THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED KNOWLEDGE OF MATERIALS .................................................................................................................................5 F OR CONVENIENCE MOST ENGINEERING MATERIALS ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE MAIN CLASSES : METALLIC , POLYMERIC ( PLASTIC ), AND CERAMIC MATERIALS ....................................................................................................................5 1. W HAT ARE METALLIC MATERIALS ....................................................................................................................5 M ETALLIC MATERIALS ARE INORGANIC SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE METALLIC ELEMENTS AND MAY ALSO CONTAIN SOME NONMETALLIC ELEMENTS . E XAMPLES OF METALLIC ELEMENTS ARE IRON , COPPER , ALUMINUM , NICKEL , AND TITANIUM . N ONMETALLIC ELEMENTS SUCH AS CARBON , NITROGEN , AND OXYGEN MAY ALSO BE CONTAINED IN METALLIC MATERIALS . M ETALS HAVE A CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE IN WHICH THE ATOMS ARE ARRANGED IN AN ORDERLY MANNER . M ETALS AND ALLOYS ARE COMMONLY DIVIDED INTO TWO CLASSES : FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS THAT CONTAIN A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF IRON SUCH AS THE STEELS CAST IRONS AND NONFERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS THAT CONTAIN IRON OR ONLY A RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNT OF IRON . E XAMPLES OF NONFERROUS METALS ARE ALUMINUM , COPPER , ZINC , TITANIUM AND NICKED . .................................................................................................................5....
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M4_1 - CONTENTS I. O BJECTIVES

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