S1_1 - Table of Contents 1.0 2.0 3.0 Introduction...

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Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Objectives 2 3.0 Background Theories 3 3.1 Theory of One-Electron Spectrum and Fine Structure of Sodium 3 3.1.1 Discrete or Line Spectrum 3 3.1.2 Origin of sodium (Na) spectrum 3 3.2 Theory of the Zeeman effect 4 4.0 Equipments 6 4.1 Diffraction Grating Spectrometer 6 4.2 Fabry-Perot Interferometer 8 5.0 Procedures and Calculations 10 5.1 To calibrate the diffraction grating spectrometer using the He spectrum 10 5.2 To determine the characteristic wavelengths of the 1 st order Na spectrum 11 5.3 To determine the separation of the yellow D-line in the Na spectrum 11 5.4 To observe the “normal Zeeman effect” using a cadium spectral lamp 11 6.0 Laboratory Results 12 7.0 Discussion 15 7.1 Sources of errors and steps taken to minimise or eliminate them 15 7.2 Comment of accuracy of d 15 7.3 Comment on differences and accuracy of 1 st order Na wavelengths 15 7.4 Reasons for not being able to observe the find splitting of yellow D-line splitting in 1 st order Na spectrum 16 7.5 Observations and explanation for dependence of interference ring pattern in the Zeeman effect on the magnetic flux density 16 8.0 Conclusion 16 References 16 Appendices: Appendix 2: Calibration Curve
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1.1 Introduction The well-known spectral lines of helium (He) can be used to calibrate a diffraction grating spectrometer. After calibration, this equipment can be used to determine the wavelengths of the spectral lines of other elements, which in this case is sodium (Na). In the presence of a magnetic field, the spectral lines of elements will be affected. In this experiment, a cadium (Cd) spectral lamp is subjected to a magnetic field, resulting in the splitting of the red cadium line (λ=643.8nm) into three components. This phenomenon is called the “normal Zeeman effect” and can be observed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. 2.0 Objectives The objectives of this experiment were set out as follows: (i) To calibrate the spectrometer using the helium spectrum (ii) To determine the grating constant (iii) To determine the spectrum of sodium (iv) To determine the fine structure splitting in the sodium spectrum (v) To observe the normal Zeeman effect using the cadium spectrum. 3.0 Background Theories 3.1 Theory of One-Electron Spectrum and Fine Structure of Sodium 3.1.1 Discrete or Line Spectrum When electrons in the atoms of an elemental gas are “excited” due to the absorption of energy, they move up to higher energy levels in the atoms. Eventually the electrons drop back down to lower energy levels. The energy difference produced by the returns of these electrons from the excited level E 1 (higher energy level) to the original state E 0 (lower energy level) is emitted as electromagnetic radiation of characteristic wavelengths in energy pockets known as photons 1 . Since every element has a unique set of energy levels available to its electrons, the emission spectrum of each will contain a unique set of
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S1_1 - Table of Contents 1.0 2.0 3.0 Introduction...

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