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Unformatted text preview: FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION* (Please review these. If you have questions, see me) Terms to learn: Strain / clone Genome Haploid Diploid Genotype Phenotype DNA as genetic material Griffiths experiment: Figure 11.1 Transformation of avirulent (rough) Streptococcus pneumoniae to the virulent (smooth) form Avery et als expt.: Figure 11.2 DNA as transforming agent Hershey and Chases expt.: Figure 11.3 Labeling phage T2 with 32 P or 35 S. DNA as genetic material in T2 Watson and Crick: Figure 11.6, DNA double helix All cellular organisms contain DNA as genetic material Prokaryotes: single, circular DNA Eukaryotes: two or more, linear DNA Central Dogma: DNA --- RNA --- Protein Replication of DNA: termineation of DNA rep is across from the Ori C region, 2 polymerases do not cross each other TUS + ter: coordinate to terminate replication Transcription Translation DNA as genome Viruses Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Exception: Viruses with RNA as genome. Reverse transcription of RNA to DNA. Information still goes from nucleic acids to protein and not vice versa. One gene-one polypeptide: Linear relationship between the nucleotide sequence in the DNA, RNA and the primary structure of a polypeptide (sequence of amino acids) 1 DNA Structure and Replication Review these before coming to class. We will start with DNA replication. DNA structure: Figures 11.5, 11.6, 11.7 Double helix: antiparallel, complementary, dNMPs joined by phosphodiester linkage to adjacent dNMPs. Strands have a polarity: 5 -> 3 DNA sequence is written from 5 -> 3 Hydrogen bonds between complementary N-bases Genetic information is encoded by the base sequences For replication and transcription H-bonds between the bases are broken (assisted by...
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- Fall '09