Class lec ol 11-12#2 DNA rep

Class lec ol 11-12#2 DNA rep -...

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FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION* (Please review these.  If you have questions, see me) Terms to learn: Strain / clone Genome  – all the DNA present in a cell or virus Haploid Diploid Genotype  – specific set of genes it posseses Phenotype  – observable characteristics DNA as genetic material Griffith’s experiment: Figure 11.1 Transformation of avirulent (rough)  Streptococcus pneumoniae  to the virulent (smooth) form S  pneumococci (virulent) that was heat killed and injected into mice did  not kill the mice However, heat killed plus live R pneumococco (nonvirulent) injected lead  to death of mouse Showed transformation of the virus                                 Avery et al’s expt.: Figure 11.2  DNA as transforming agent Showed that DNA must be present for transformation bc the DNA of the  dead S cells are taken up by the live R cells Only if treated with Dnase would there be no transformation 1
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                                    Hershey and Chase’s expt.: Figure 11.3 Labeling phage T2 with  32  P or  35  S.  DNA as genetic material in T2 used bacteriophage T2 infection as model Demonstrated that DNA, not protein carried genetic material Protein labeled with S35 not found in subsequent phages DNA labeled with P32 was found in subsequent phages produced inside  the cell 2
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                                 Watson and Crick: Figure 11.6, DNA double helix Sugar-phosphate backbone (phospodiester bonds) spiral the outside of the  double helix with the base pairs embedded inside 3 hydrogen bonds between guanine and cytosine, 2 between adenine and  thymine Flow of genetic information: from one generation to the next DNA stores genetic information Information is duplicated by replication and is passed on to next  generation Process called gene expression DNA divided into genes transcription yields a ribonucleic acid (RNA) copy of specific genes translation uses information in messenger RNA (mRNA) to synthesize a  polypeptide Also involves activities of transfer RNA (tRNA)  and ribosomal  RNA (rRNA) 3
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