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Class lec ol 13-14 Transc Transl

Class lec ol 13-14 Transc Transl - Transcription and...

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Transcription and Translation 5pt bonus: genome of H1N1, symptoms, prevention, treatment, 50-100 words by friday RNA Structure* - Three different types which differ from each other in function* -messenger RNA -ribosomal RNA -transfer RNA -anytime RNA is synthesized, DNA is the template and the transcripts are made from only one RNA polymerase in bacteria, there are 3 RNA polymerase in eukaryotes Rules for polymerization of Nucleic Acids* Gene Structure* Gene: -the basic unit of genetic info -also defined as the nucleic acid sequence that codes for a polypeptide, tRNA or rRNA -linear sequence of nucleotides with a fixed start point and end point -codons are found in mRNA and code for single amino acids Reading frame -reading does not start on a particular codon -what are the diff combos you can make for the amino acids, 6 potential polypeptides with a double stranded DNA Importance of reading frame Genes that Code for Proteins Figure 11.23 Promoter is located at the start of the gene Chromosomal Organization in Bacteria and Viruse -both strands carry genetic info, gene 1 can be on the top strand and gene 2 can be on the bottom strand, no overlapping -in general there is no overlapping, except in 5.74 ?????? Tomoisomerases - Type 1: makes a nick in a single strand to relieve negative supercoiling - Type 2: make double stranded nicks to remove entanglement, during elongation, type 2 (gyrase) relieves supercoiling, topo4 is involved in resolving the duplicated strands to separate them DNA polymerase 3 -Tau(T) and gamma(y) -y is shorter, needed for loading the beta clamp, 4 nucleotides at the end code for one a.a. -T is full length -ribosomal shift E. coli has 5 DNA polymerases and polymerase 3 plays the major role in  replication, assisted by polymerase 1. DNA polymerse 3 holoenzyme is a  complex of  10 proteins  including two core enzymes, each composed of three 
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protein subunits. The core enzymes are responsible for catalyzing DNA synthesis  and proofreading the product to ensure fidelity of replication. A dimer of another  subunit (tau) connects the two core enzymes. Associated with each core enzyme  is a subunit called the beta sliding clamp. This protein tethers the core enzyme to 
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