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Unformatted text preview: Baroque Art Circumstances that led to changes in the visual arts in 16th-century Europe include: -1517- Martin Luther nails Ninety-Five Theses to door of Wittenberg Cathedral: To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God this is madness. (75) To wit: --Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. (82)-1521- Magellan and his crew complete the first circumnavigation of the world-1522- Luther publishes a vernacular, German version of the Bible; Luthers impact on the visual arts was considerable. In Eight Sermons (1522) and Against the Heavenly Prophets in the Matter of Images and Sacraments (1525) he defended Merkbilder (mnemonic images) for their didactic value. -1525- From Luthers Against the Heavenly Prophets in the Matter of Images and Sacraments , I approached the task of destroying images by first tearing them out of the heart through Gods Word and making them worthless and despised. For when they are no longer in the heart, they can do no harm when seen with the eyes. I have allowed and not forbidden the outward removal of images. And I say at the outset that according to the Law of Moses no other images are forbidden than an image of God which one worships. A crucifix, on the other hand, or any other holy image is not forbidden.-1534- Ignatius Loyola founds Society of Jesus (the Jesuit Order). Unlike the mendicant orders of the 14 th and 15 th centuries, the Jesuits were sanctioned by the Vatican to recover and reassert the authority they had lost because of the Protestant Reformation. Some modern critics have called the Jesuits the Papal Storm-Troopers. Not a Baroque Church per se, the Church of Jesus in Rome includes the faade of Il Ges (Giacomo della Porta, 1575), which used architectural elements intended to call attention to the Jesuits power to act on behalf of the Pope. -1539- Suppression of monasteries in England -1542- Inquisition established in Rome -1550- Vasaris Lives of the Painters published in Florence -1563- Council of Trent concluded its eighteen-year-long deliberations on church doctrine, deciding that religious imagery was important to the practice of Christianity, but that certain types of representations were inappropriate for ecclesiastical display. Those artists who violated the Councils dictates would be called before the Inquisition, if found in violation of Church policy, an artist could be subject to torture and/or execution for visual sacrilege, blasphemy or heresy....
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2009 for the course ARTS 150 taught by Professor Caffey during the Fall '08 term at Texas A&M.
- Fall '08