CH11 - CHAPTER 11 Where Positive Net Present Value Comes...

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CHAPTER 11 Where Positive Net Present Value Comes From Answers to Practice Questions 1. The 757 must be a zero-NPV investment for the marginal user. Unless Boeing can charge different prices to different users (which is precluded with a secondary market), Delta will earn economic rents if the 757 is particularly well suited to Delta’s routes (and competition does not force Delta to pass the cost savings through to customers in the form of lower fares). Thus, the decision focuses on the issue of whether the plane is worth more in Delta’s hands than in the hands of the marginal user. a. With a good secondary market and information on past changes in aircraft prices, it becomes somewhat more feasible to ignore cash flows beyond the first few years and to substitute the expected residual value of the plane. b. Past aircraft prices may be used to estimate systematic risk (see Chapter 9). c. The existence of a secondary market makes it more important to take note of the abandonment option (see Chapter 10). 2. The key question is: Will Gamma Airlines be able to earn economic rents on the Akron-Yellowknife route? The necessary steps include: a. Forecasting costs, including the cost of building and maintaining terminal facilities, all necessary training, advertising, equipment, etc. b. Forecasting revenues, which includes a detailed market demand analysis (what types of travelers are expected and what prices can be charged) as well as an analysis of the competition (if Gamma is successful, how quickly would competition spring up?). c. Calculating the net present value. The leasing market comes into play because it tells Gamma Airlines the opportunity cost of the planes, a critical component of costs. If the Akron-Yellowknife project is attractive and growth occurs at the Ulan Bator hub, Gamma Airlines should simply lease additional aircraft. 3. To a baby with a hammer, everything looks like a nail. The point is that financial managers should not mechanically apply DCF to every problem. Sometimes, part or all of a valuation problem can be solved by direct observation of market values. Sometimes careful thought about economic rents clarifies whether NPV is truly positive. 107
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4. The price of $280 per ounce represents the discounted value of expected future gold prices. Hence, the present value of 1 million ounces produced 8 years from now should be: ($280 × 1 million) = $280 million 5. First, consider the sequence of events: At t = 0, the investment of $25,000,000 is made. At t = 1, production begins, so the first year of revenue and expenses is recorded at t = 2. At t = 5, the patent expires and competition may enter. Since it takes one year to achieve full production, competition is not a factor until t = 7. (This assumes the competition does not begin construction until the patent expires.) After t = 7, full competition will exist and thus any new entrant into the market for BGs will earn the 9% cost of capital.
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