Psych150-Lecture18-3-19-2007 - PSYCHOLOGY 150 Professor...

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Lightning) is the only authorized note-taking service at UC Berkeley. Please do not share, copy or illegally distribute these notes. Our non-profit, student-run program depends on your individual subscription for its continued existence. These notes are copyrighted by the University of California and are for your personal use only. Sharing or copying these notes is illegal and could end note taking for this course LECTURE Phenomenological Approaches. This is the last topic we will cover for your second exam which is on the Wednesday after the spring break. There are three basic schools to phenomenological approaches which were contemporaneous with behaviorist approaches. The Freudian approach saw the human psyche as driven by aggressive and sexual instincts that the ego had to control; these are powerful dark sides of the psyche that are problematic and must be transformed so that they are not socially destructive. Behaviorists said we are born with nothing and that the environment is everything. We simply respond to it through learning processes. There is no person for the behaviorists, just stimulus and response and nothing in between. We are controlled by external stimuli, so there is no space for free will. We are at the mercy of the stimuli in the situation or environment. Phenomenological theorists add some optimism to the picture; they are reacting to both the Freudian and behaviorist models that see humans as lacking free will. Assumptions of Phenomenological Approaches. The first assumption is that each person is unique and has a unique frame of reference on the world. Our subjective experiences and perceptions of the world are unique. Second, humans are agents and not passive recipients of either external stimuli as the behaviorists claimed, or internal instincts, as Freud would have it. Psychopathology can emerge from a belief that we have no free will; mental illness can occur when a person believes that they lack agency. Third, humans are intrinsically good and have benign motives and strive to grow and better themselves. Harold Kelly strongly emphasizes the first assumption, while Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow focus more on the third. All phenomenological theorists hold to all three assumptions however, but have differences in focus. A fourth assumption is an emphasis on the present. For Freud the key is uncovering factors from the past that cause you to behave in certain ways. Phenomenologists focus on the present and don’t analyze the past; they care about the present and how it is affecting the future. They are not concerned with where problems come from; they don’t go back to your childhood. Rogers. Rogers and Maslow are part of the
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSYCH 150 taught by Professor Ayduk during the Spring '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Psych150-Lecture18-3-19-2007 - PSYCHOLOGY 150 Professor...

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