BMB 402H STUDY GUIDE Spring 2009 Chapter 23: Other Pathways of Carbohydrate Metabolism 1. The noncarbohydrate precursors for gluconeogenesis; no need to memorize how specific amino acids are broken down to some of these precursors 2. Physiological significance of gluconeogenesis (i.e., why is gluconeogeneis of vital importance during fasting and long-term starvation?) 3. Why opposing metabolic pathways are never just the reverse of one another 4. The three bypass steps in gluconeogenesis; no need to memorize the absolute values of the free energy changes for the reactions 5. Be familiar with the mechanisms of pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase 6. The two shuttle pathways for transporting oxaloacetate from mitochondria to the cytosol; which one is preferred under most situations? Why? 7. How do the above-mentioned two shuttle pathways work to “transport” the reducing power NADH from the cytosol to the mitochondrion? 8.
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