intro_stem_cells_class

intro_stem_cells_class - Final topic Development, with an...

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Final topic Development, with an emphasis on stem cells •Adult stem cells •Source •Developmental potential •Therapeutic potential •Embryonic stem cells •Source •Developmental potential •Therapeutic potential •The Science, the Hype, the Hope, the Ethics, the Scandals, etc
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I. Mammalian Development 1. Fertilization •fusion of sperm and egg forms the single-celled zygote 2. Cleavages •proliferation •rapid early cell divisions of blastomeres forms blastula
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3. 8-16 cell stage - Compaction and Blastocyst formation •compaction at 8 cell stage (unique to mammals) •leads to Frst differentiation event •cells on the outside give rise to trophoblast •forms extraembryonic tissue that nourishes the embryo •cells on the inside “inner cell mass -ICM” give rise to the embryo and the amnion •ICM is source of embryonic stem cells •by 16 cells leads to formation of the blastocyst (blastula in non-mammals) •cells on the outside pump Na+ into the interior •draws water osmotically into interior leading to formation of enlarged cavity
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4. Gastrulation - formation of 3 germ layers (also see MBOC 21-6:example of Xenopus gastrulation) •Cell movements lead to the formation of 3 layers of cells called germ layers. •original layer of cells gives rise to the ectoderm •cells in Frst layer begin to invaginate •invagination into primitive streak and involution of outer layer forms endoderm •delamination of cells from outer layer to become "sandwiched" between outer and inner, invaginating layer becomes mesoderm
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Germ layers (con’t) •Ectoderm •skin, nervous system. •Mesoderm •muscle, kidney, blood, gonad, bone and connective tissue. •Endoderm •digestive tract and associated organs, liver and lungs. 5. Organogenesis •neural tube (ectoderm) and notochord (mesoderm) are frst structures (MBOC 21-10) • neural tube Forms brain and spinal cord • organizes somites
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II. Determination and differentiation Committed to a particular fate, but not in its Fnal form / myoFber Determination -cell has undergone a self perpetuating change of internal character that dis- tinguishes it and its progeny from other cells in the embryo and commits them to a specialized course of development. •Determination vs differentiation using muscle as an example Differentiation -cell has adopted its Fnal developmental state and has undergone a change to an overtly specialized cell type. Multipotent
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III. Stem cells •Defnitions •Cell that is capable oF both selF renewal and diFFerentiation. •UndiFFerentiated cell that can continue dividing indefnitely, throwing oFF daughter cells that can undergo terminal diFFerentiation into particular cell types •Potency •unipotent - gives rise to cells that diFFerentiate into a single cell type •e.g., myoblast •multipotent - gives rise to cells that can diFFerentiate into multiple cell types •e.g., HSC - hematopoietic stem cell •pluripotent - able to give rise to all cell types Found
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2009 for the course B M B 460 taught by Professor Hanna-rose,w during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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intro_stem_cells_class - Final topic Development, with an...

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