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Unformatted text preview: The Child’s Role in Development: The Child’s Role in Development: Temperament
FSHD 447A 2/5/09 Objectives Objectives To understand the interplay between biologicallybased child characteristics and the social environment in shaping development.
To reexamine the role of child characteristics in Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory of development. To examine evidence on temperament and parenting to illustrate childenvironment transactions. ◦ To apply knowledge on temperament environment transactions in an analysis of the “Shy Maria” case study Development involves ongoing mutual Bioecological Theory Bioecological Theory Revisited accommodation between an active, growing, highly complex bio psychological organism (the child) and changing ecological contexts in which child is embedded. demand characteristics influence…
The child’s engagement in proximal processes Child dispositions, resources, and Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model Macrosystem
Exosystem Mesosystem Microsystem Developing Person
•Dispositions/Demand Characteristics •Age •Gender •Temperament •Physical Appearance •Resources •Cognitive •Social •Physical Misinterpretation of correlation evidence in Child Characteristics & Child Characteristics & Parental Socialization research on parenting and child outcomes. Contemporary views of child socialization recognize that socialization is a bidirectional influence process: ◦ Parents influence children (“parent effects”) ◦ Children influence parent’s (“child effects”) Child and social environment also interact in more complex ways. Research on temperament and parenting illustrates these childenvironment transactions. Infant Temperament Infant Temperament Evidence on “Easy” Temperament Evidence on “Easy” Temperament & Parenting Evidence on “Difficult” Evidence on “Difficult” Temperament & Parenting Evidence on “Fearful” Evidence on “Fearful” Temperament & Parenting TemperamentEnvironment TemperamentEnvironment Interactions & Child Outcomes Difficult Temperament & Child Difficult Temperament & Child Adjustment The Concept of “GoodofFit” (Thomas & The Concept of “GoodofFit” (Thomas & Chess, 1977) A given temperament will have different effects on later adjustment depending on the childrearing environment (i.e., good vs. poor fit) Good fit results when the demands, expectations, and attitudes of the caretaker match the child’s temperament resulting in optimal development. Difficult Temperament & Difficult Temperament & GoodnessofFit Good Adjustment Poor Adjustment Difficult Temperament Cultural Context & Goodnessof Cultural Context & Goodnessof Fit Implications Implications
Particular temperamental predispositions provide multiple possibilities for developmental outcomes. be triggered by certain environmental conditions. Temperamental predispositions may Temperament Differences in Temperament Differences in Children’s Responses Parenting A given parental socialization practice can have different effects on children with different temperaments.
◦ A Research Illustration: Temperament, A Research Illustration: Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Development (Kochanska, 1995, 1997) Do particular parenting strategies have different effects on children based on their temperaments?
Effects of gentle discipline, power assertion, and responsiveness on conscience development Compared outcomes of children with “fearful” (shy, anxious) vs. fearless”(less anxious, bold, assertive) temperaments ◦ ◦ Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Development (Kochanska, 1995, 1997) Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Development (Kochanska, 1995, 1997) Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Temperament, Parenting, & Moral Development (Kochanska, 1995, 1997) Conclusions/Implications Conclusions/Implications
Children’s individual qualities play a critical role in their development Parental socialization processes involve Our power as parents is constrained by the child’s characteristics bidirectional and interactional effects of child characteristics in combination with parent and contextual factors. Parental socialization does not have universal effects, and there is no generic recipe for good parenting. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2009 for the course FSHD 447 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Arizona.
- Spring '08