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Unformatted text preview: of the European aristocracy and the Italian port cities. No long-lasting military or political gains were achieved in the Crusades, and the Byzantine Empire eventually was defeated by the Turks. However, the extended period of contact with the East injected renewed energy into European commercial life and enhanced the wealth of several Italian city-states. It also reacquainted Europe with cultures beyond its borders in ways that had not been common since the fall of Rome. Also, the political and social instability caused by the Crusades inside Europe led to the consolidation and centralizing of political power in newly forming nation-states that were slowly replacing the fragmented political structures of the middle ages....
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2009 for the course HUMA 1301 taught by Professor Boyd during the Spring '08 term at Collin College.
- Spring '08