PSYC 305 Oct 1st

PSYC 305 Oct 1st - PSYC305Oct1st

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PSYC 305 Oct 1st 21:01 Personality Researchers study two types of independent variables: Subject variables and manipulated variables Subject Variables: Compare people who differ in 1) Demographic characteristics (EG Males VS  Females. Younger VS Older participants), or 2) differ in personality features Manipulated Variables: Where one level or form of the independent variable is applied to some  participants, but a different level or form is applied to others. Between-Subject variable (design): One level of an independent variable is applied to some participants but not  others. Within-subject variable (design): Repeated measures design. A person is measured each time after being exposed to two or more levels of  independent variable. Random Assignment: Participants are allocated randomly to the subgroups. Essential to make inference about cause and effect relations.
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You can’t make claims about cause and effect relationship when random  assignment isn’t taken place. Moderator or Interaction effect: The effect of an independent variable is influenced by the level of another  independent variable  Moderator effects need to be distinguished from Mediator effects. If a factor is a mediator, this suggests that the link between a variable and  another variable exists primarily of their mutual link with another intervening  variable that influences both of these variables. Personality is linked with psychological distress because personality variable  is associated with maladaptive, defeating coping styles, which in turn are  associated with psychological distress. Baron and Kenny’s (1986) Criteria for mediation:
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PSYC 305 Oct 1st - PSYC305Oct1st

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