Permitforthesame experimentswererejectedatthe

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Unformatted text preview: ,
parasitism,
 competition,
disease
 Do
abiotic
factors
 limit
its
 distribution?
 Chemical
 factors
 No
 No
 Water
 Oxygen
 Salinity
 pH
 Soil
nutrients,
etc.
 Temperature
 Light
 Soil
structure
 Fire
 Moisture,
etc.
 Physical
 factors
 (Actual
range)
 Opuntia:
Natural
range
expansion
through
introduction
 Potential
range
 Actual
range
 • 
C.
cactorum
introduced
to
Australia
in
1926
 • 
Cochineal
dye

produced
by
an
insect
living
on
Opuntia
 • 
Ancient
Indian
dye
(Mexico)
 • 
1
kg
dye=140000
insect
bodies
 • 
1900s:
pork
sausage,
candies,
jams,
lipstick

 • 
11
million
hectares
cleared
by
1936
 Before:
 After:
 Cactus
moth
global
distribution:
 Cactus
moth
global
distribution:
 •  •  •  •  1930
India
 1933
South
Africa
 1950
Hawaii
 1956
The
Caribbean
 7
 4/17/09
 Arrival
to
the
United
States
 1989
 1956
 TX
 2006
 FL
 1989
 Previously
known
about
dispersal:
  
Short
distance
dispersal
in


 



AU
and
SA
(Dodd
1940,
Pettey
1948)
  
Erratic
flight
was
observed
close
to
 the
ground,
suggesting
that
it
is
not
a
 long
flyer
(Zimmerman
et
al.
2004)
 In
the
USA:
  
Censusin
FL
suggested
50‐75
km


 



dispersal
per
year
(Stiling
2002)
  
Release‐recapture
in
7
kms

 



(Hight,
pers.
obs.)
 Artif...
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