lec77_ecology1

lec77_ecology1 - 17April2009 Lecture77. MarkA.Sarvary...

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4/17/09 1 Lecture 77. Introduction to Ecology Mark A. Sarvary 17 April 2009 Ecology ≈ Love It is hard to define The word is overused Many people don’t really mean it when they say it Many people talk about it but they don’t practice it…. Ecology Oikos – home Logos – to study Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance Biomes are the major ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water Varying combinations of biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of biomes Terrestrial and aquatic life zones…. account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area Oceans cover about 75% of Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere Aquatic biomes Tropical forest Savanna Desert Chaparral Temperate grassland Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Tundra High mountains Polar ice 30ºN Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn 30ºS Terrestrial biomes Upstate New York= Temperate broadleaf forest
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4/17/09 2 Fig. 52‐20 Tropical forest Temperate grassland Desert Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annualmeantemperature(ºC) Annual mean precipitation (cm) 30 15 0 0 –15 100 200 300 400 Descriptive approach ‐‐‐‐‐‐ natural history (fundamental part of ecology) Don’t only think on the molecular level Know your organism! Ecology What is this? Ecology Hypothesis testing Field experiments Statistical analysis Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology Organismal ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area Population ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area
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4/17/09 3 A community is a group of populations of different species in an area Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community An ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components A landscape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems Landscape ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region The biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere And the future… (Universal Ecology) Events that occur in ecological time affect life on the scale of evolutionary time “Department of E&EB: (1) biogeochemistry and ecosystem science, (2) community ecology, (3) population biology,
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lec77_ecology1 - 17April2009 Lecture77. MarkA.Sarvary...

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