lec%2083%20consbio - 5/1/09
 Carolina Parakeet Ivory...

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Unformatted text preview: 5/1/09
 Carolina Parakeet Ivory Billed Woodpecker Extinct?? Passenger Pigeon Please
complete
the
course
evaluation
 http://courseeval.cornell.edu/evaluation/index.cfm
 Great Auk Extinct ca. 1852 Extinct 1918 Extinct 1914 There were flocks a mile wide and 300 miles (500 km) long, taking several days to pass and probably containing two billion birds Since 1850 there has been at least one bird species extinction every 4 years, now the rate is about 1 species per year! BioG
1102
Final
Exam,
2
‐
4:30
PM,
May
7
 Webquiz
23
will
be
available
tomorrow
and
 due
on
FRIDAY
May
8th!!!!
 Today
is
the
last
day
you
can
register
your
 clicker.
Keep
the
registration
email
for
proof!
 Two
parts:
 1)  coverage
from
the
last
prelim
(22
%,
same
as
another
prelim)
 2)  comprehensive,
from
lecture
42
‐
83
(10
%) All
questions
will
be
multiple
choice
(no
essays)
 The
comprehensive
section
will
test
general
principles,
not
details.
 Required
chapters:
22,
24,
25,
26,
52,
53,
54,
55,
56
 Today
is
the
last
day
you
can
complete

 the
EXPLORATION
evaluation
 Example
cumulative
question
for
the
final
 Three
metabolic
enzymes
are
responsible
for
breaking
down
the
 sugar
arabinose
to
D‐xyluose‐5‐phosphate.
The
genes
for
these
 enzymes
are
linked
on
the
same
chromosome
and
are
regulated
 by
a
common
promoter.

Which
statement
about
these
enzymes
 and
their
genes
is
INCORRECT?
 Human
effects
  Altered
50%
of
the
Earth
surface
  Used
>50%
available
freshwater
  Pushing
more
species
towards
extinction
than
the
 asteroid
65
mill
years
ago
 *
B)
the
second
gene
consists
of
four
exons
and
three
introns
 A)
an
operator
is
associated
with
the
promoter
 C)
the
second
structural
gene
codes
for
the
first
enzyme
in
the
 pathway
 D)
arabinose
activates
the
pathway
 E)
transcription
is
catalyzed
by
RNA
polymerase
 1
 5/1/09
 Human
Domination
of

 Earth’s
Ecosystems
 Vitousek
et
al.
1997
 Carbon
credit
 In
the
Kyoto
Protocol,
an
international
agreement
between
 more
than
170
countries
 The
Protocol
agreed
'caps'
or
quotas
on
the
maximum
amount
 of
Greenhouse
gases
for
developed
and
developing
countries.

 Operators/countries
that
have
not
used
up
their
quotas
can
 sell
their
unused
allowances
as
carbon
credits,
while
 businesses
that
are
about
to
exceed
their
quotas
can
buy
the
 extra
allowances
as
credits
 Another
seller
may
have
already
invested
in
new
low‐emission
 machinery
and
have
a
surplus
of
allowances
as
a
result.
The
 factory
could
make
up
for
its
emissions
by
buying
20,000
 tonnes
of
allowances
from
them.
The
cost
of
the
seller's
new
 machinery
would
be
subsidized
by
the
sale
of
allowances.
Both
 the
buyer
and
the
seller
would
submit
accounts
for
their
 emissions
to
prove
that
their
allowances
were
met
correctly.
 Carbon
credit
 Reality:
 
‘‘If
a
Japanese
company
owns
a
factory
in
China
which
is
 making
goods
to
sell
to
customers
in
the
US,
then
whose
 emissions
are
they?

 [Further,]
the
factory
might
be
burning
Australian
coal
and
 Iranian
oil,
produced
corporations
domiciled
in
Europe
or
 corporations
in
Singapore,
owned
by
shareholders
scattered
 across
the
globe.’’

 
Letter
in
New
Scientist
Dec
2007.
 Deforestation
for
Palm
Oil
 2
 5/1/09
 Important
United
States
environmental
milestones
 Clean
air
act
of
1963
[to
1990]
 Environmental
Protection
Agency
1970
 Clean
water
act
of
1972
[&
1977]
 Endangered
Species
Act
1973
 What
will
you
be
doing
this
summer?
 A.  Research/internship
outside
of
Cornell
 B.  Research/internship
at
Cornell
 C.  Summer
school
 D.  Non‐academic
work
 E.  Just
relax
and
enjoy
the
summer
 What
will
you
be
doing
this
summer?
 A.  Research/internship
outside
of
Cornell
 B.  Research/internship
at
Cornell
 C.  Summer
school
 D.  Non‐academic
work
 *
E.  Just
relax
and
enjoy
the
summer
 Ecosystem
Services
 •  Ecosystem
services
encompass
all
the
processes
 through
which
natural
ecosystems
and
their
 species
help
sustain
human
life
 •  Some
examples
of
ecosystem
services:
 –  Purification
of
air
and
water
 –  Detoxification
and
decomposition
of
wastes
 –  Cycling
of
nutrients
 –  ‐Pollination
 Dr.
John
Losey
 Three
Threats
to
Biodiversity
 •  Most
species
loss
can
be
traced
to
three
major
 threats:
 –  Habitat
destruction
 –  Introduced
species
 –  Overexploitation
 Island
effect‐‐‐metapopulations
 3
 5/1/09
 Small
 population
 Minimum
viable
 population
(MVP)
 is
the
minimum
 population
size
at
 which
a
species
can
 survive
 Reduction
in
 individual
 fitness
and
 population
 adaptability
 Inbreeding
 Lower
 reproduction
 Higher
 mortality
 Genetic
 drift
 •  Globally,
12%
of
birds,
20%
of
mammals,
and
 32%
of
amphibians
are
threatened
with
 extinction
 Loss
of
 genetic
 variability
 Smaller
 population
 Since
1500,
more
than
150
bird
species
have
disappeared
from
the
 world
[=
~
1
every
4
years],

 Human
activities
have
caused
some
500
bird
species
 worldwide
to
go
extinct
over
the
past
five
millennia

 About
one‐third
of
the
world's
birds
are
endemic
to
islands,
and
they
have
been
 reduced
by
30
to
50
percent
since
humans
came
to
these
islands.


 Solutions?
 Davis,
California
‐
Frog
Tunnel
‐
Toad
 Hollow
 Toad
Hollow
is
the
famous
miniature
 village
located
on
the
eastern
entrance
 of
the
Toad
Tunnel
near
the
main
Davis
 Post
Office.

 The
builder
of
the
Toad
Hollow
village,
 has
also
written
a
book
title
"The
Toads
 of
Davis,"
which
tells
the
story
of
the
 town's
legendary
toad
tunnel.
In
1995,
 the
city
of
Davis
spent
$14,000
to
build
 a
frog
and
toad
tunnel
under
the
Pole
 Line
Road
overpass
across
Interstate
 80.
 “Declaring
a
species
as
extinct
or
delisting
a
 species
where
legal
protection
exists
is
a
poor
 idea
unless
statistically
sufficient
survey
efforts
 have
been
made,”
 http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/sciencenow/ 3302/03.html
 http://www.birds.cornell.edu/ivory/
 4
 5/1/09
 Establishing
Protected
Areas
 •  Conservation
biologists
apply
understanding
of
 ecological
dynamics
in
establishing
protected
areas
 to
slow
the
loss
of
biodiversity
 •  Much
of
their
focus
has
been
on
hot
spots
of
 biological
diversity
 The Decline of C-9 • Coccinella
novemnotata
–
 • 
the
9
spotted
ladybeetle
 (C‐9)
 • 
our
honored
state
insect
 • 
a
true
New
York
native
 
 Not
your
typical
endangered
insect:
 • 
formerly
most
common
in
the
US
 • 
wide
geographic,
habitat,
and
prey
range
 Why
did
C‐9
decline?
 •  Habitat
changes
 •  Interaction
with
invasive
 species
 
 ‐
direct
competition
 
 ‐
pathogens
and


 


 
 parasitoids
 
 ‐
hybridization
 The
Leading
Suspects
 Two
introduced
species
 Coccinella
septempunctata
 ‐ the
7
spotted
ladybeetle
 ‐
the
multi‐colored
asian
 


ladybeetle
 Harmonia
axyridis
 5
 5/1/09
 "The
Tragedy
of
the
Commons"
is
an
 influential
article
written
by
Garrett
 Hardin
and
first
published
in
the
journal
 Science
in
1968.
 The
article
describes
a
dilemma
in
which
 multiple
individuals
acting
independently
 in
their
own
self‐interest
can
ultimately
 destroy
a
shared
limited
resource
even
 when
it
is
clear
that
it
is
not
in
anyone's
 long
term
interest
for
this
to
happen.
 Central
to
Hardin's
article
is
a
metaphor
 of
herders
sharing
a
common
parcel
of
 land
(the
commons),
on
which
they
are
 all
entitled
to
let
their
cows
graze.
In
 Hardin's
view,
it
is
in
each
herder's
 interest
to
put
as
many
cows
as
possible
 onto
the
land,
even
if
the
commons
are
 damaged
as
a
result
 The
metaphor
illustrates
the
argument
 that
free
access
and
unrestricted
demand
 for
a
finite
resource
ultimately
dooms
the
 resource
through
over‐exploitation.
 
This
occurs
because
the
benefits
of
 exploitation
accrue
to
individuals
or
 groups,
each
of
whom
is
motivated
to
 maximize
use
of
the
resource
to
the
point
 in
which
they
become
reliant
on
it.

 This,
in
turn,
causes
demand
for
the
 resource
to
increase,
which
causes
the
 problem
to
snowball
to
the
point
that
the
 resource
is
exhausted.
 What
can
I
do?
 • 

Think
globally,
act
locally
–
awareness
of
issues
 • 

Decrease
per
capita
use
of
resources:
 ‐

Reduce,
reuse,
recycle
=
conserve
 ‐

Employ
technology
–
increase
efficiency
 
 ‐
minimize
footprint
 • 

Permanent
societal
solutions
–
global
cooperation
 

[via
voting
and
political
activism
(politics)

 




and
market
pressure
(economics)]:
 ‐ 
rmax
<
1
[=ZPG]
 ‐ 
Preserves/natural
areas
 ‐ 
Regulate
[globally]
natural
resources
 ‐ 
Work
toward
common
good
–
will
 Sustainable
Biosphere
Initiative
 •  Sustainable
development
is
development
that
 meets
the
needs
of
people
today
without
 limiting
the
ability
of
future
generations
to
meet
 their
needs
 •  The
goal
of
the
Sustainable
Biosphere
Initiative
 is
to
define
and
acquire
basic
ecological
 information
for
responsible
development,
 management,
and
conservation
of
Earth’s
 resources
 Low‐cost,
low‐tech
sustainability
 Latin
America
where
the
 enhancement
of
agricultural
 biodiversity
is
helping
 resource‐poor
farmers
 achieve
year‐round
food
self‐ sufficiency,
reduce
their
 reliance
on
chemicals
and
 develop
agroecosystems
that
 rebuild
the
production
 capacities
of
their
small
land
 holdings
 After
learning
more
about
our
planet…
 A.  I
will
change
the
way
I
use
resources
 B.  I
will
continue
using
resources
without
paying
 attention
 C.  I
was
already
living
“sustainably ”
and
these
 lecture
just
emphasized
the
need
for
it
 D.  
I
don’t
care
about
our
planet
 E.  You
just
made
me
depressed
with
these
 lectures
 6
 5/1/09
 •  Conserve
the
planet
for
future
generations
 Rita
Levi
Montalcini
 She
shared
the
1986
Nobel
Prize
for
Medicine
for
 discovering
mechanisms
that
regulate
the
growth
 of
cells
and
organs.
 "At
100,
I
have
a
mind
that
is
superior
—
thanks
 to
experience
—
than
when
I
was
20,"
she
told
 the
party,
 The
Turin‐born
Levi
Montalcini
recounted
how
 the
anti‐Jewish
laws
of
the
1930s
under
Benito
 Mussolini's
Fascist
regime
forced
her
to
quit
 university
and
do
research
in
an
improvised
 laboratory
in
her
bedroom
at
home.

 "Above
all,
don't
fear
difficult
moments,"
she
 said.
"The
best
comes
from
them.""I
should
thank
 Mussolini
for
having
declared
me
to
be
of
an
 inferior
race.
This
led
me
to
the
joy
of
working,
 not
any
more
unfortunately,
in
university
 institutes
but
in
a
bedroom,"
the
scientist
said.
 Let
your
curiosity
be
 your
motivator
to
 discover
new
things
 Be
responsible
today!
 ? Mark
 Biog
1102
 Thank
you!
 7
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2009 for the course BIO G 1102 taught by Professor Walcott during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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