bme403_muslec_2_2006

bme403_muslec_2_2006 - Muscle Model The maximum force or...

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Muscle Model The maximum force or tension generated by a muscle varies with muscle length. Figure MM.1 shows the general shape of the length-tension relationship. 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % RESTING LENGTH % MAXIMUM TENSION Figure MM.1 Length-tension curve for skeletal muscle Note that a muscle will usually start at the resting length (100%) and shorten (< 100%). Figure MM.1 depicts muscle response under isometric (constant length) conditions. To account for both force-velocity and length-tension properties a model is needed. The simplest model assumes linear curves as will now be considered. The isometric force-length and force-velocity properties of muscle can be idealized in a linear manner shown below:

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Figure MM.2 Linear length-tension and force-velocity curves If variable x is defined as changes in length from the resting length (positive sense to left of resting length), muscle force F can be expressed as: Fiso = Fmax – k1 x Fmuscle = Fiso- k2 dx/dt = Fmax – k1 x – k2 dx/dt Note that k1 can be interpreted as a spring and k2 as a resistance. In an electrical analog, these elements are in series. Constant k2 can be modeled as a resistance, but it is largely
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bme403_muslec_2_2006 - Muscle Model The maximum force or...

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