bis_104_rtk_signaling_fall_08

bis_104_rtk_signaling_fall_08 - BIS 104 Cell Signaling(aka...

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BIS 104 Cell Signaling (aka Signal Transduction) A. What is it? Information (from neighboring cells, environment) in the form of chemical stimuli is relayed across the plasma membrane to cell cytoplasm and nucleus. B. General features of signaling systems (figures 15.1, 2, 3). 1. Recognition of stimulus at outer surface of PM by specific receptor proteins. 2. Transfer of signal from outer surface of cell to inner leaflet of PM. 3. Transmission of signal to effector molecules on the inner leaflet and cytoplasm. 4. Cessation of response due to inactivation or degradation of signal molecules; accompanied by decrease in level of external stimulus. C. Alternative pathways. For some signaling molecules, no membrane receptors are required; they enter cell by passive diffusion. E.g., steroids, nitric oxide; acetylcholine, retinoic acid. D. Basic characteristics of cell signaling systems: 1. Series of protein conformational changes, usually mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases.
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