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chapter_2_lectures_a_1_slide_per_page - TINBERGEN 4...

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TINBERGEN’S “ TINBERGEN S ABOUT BE How does it develop? • What mechanisms cause What mechanisms cause How did it evolve? H d i ib How does it contribute t “4 QUESTIONS” 4 QUESTIONS EHAVIOR e it? Niko i l? Tinbergen o survival?
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LEVELS OF PROXIMATE CAUSES – Developmental mechanis Developmental mechanis – Immediate causal mechan • ULTIMATE CAUSES ULTIMATE CAUSES – Historical pathways S l ti – Selective processes ANALYSIS S sms nisms
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HOW AND W WHY BIRDS SING Cassin’s finch
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A FEW OBSERVA BIRD SPECIES VARY IN CO • QUALITY OF SONG V QUALITY OF SONG V SONG TENDS TO BE S SONG PRODUCTION V SONG VARIES GEOGR ATIONS ABOUT ATIONS ABOUT SONG OMPLEXITY OF SONG VARIES WITH AGE SEX SPECIFIC VARIES SEASONALLY RAPHICALLY
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VARIATION IN SO CASSIN’S FINCH TIME (seconds NG COMPLEXITY BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE )
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VOCALIZATIONS AG S CHANGE WITH S CHANGE WITH GE
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SEX SPECIFIC ZEBRA F MALE CITY OF SONG FINCHES FEMALE
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SEASONAL VAR RIATION IN SONG
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GEOGRAPHIC VAR Song dialects: Song type 1 RIATION IN SONG Song type 2 Song type 3
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LEVELS OF PROXIMATE CAUSES – Developmental mechanis Developmental mechanis – Immediate causal mechan • ULTIMATE CAUSES ULTIMATE CAUSES – Historical pathways S l ti – Selective processes ANALYSIS S sms nisms
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Geographic Var Dialects in Geographic variation in • Variants occur in cluster Variants occur in cluster – Variation within an area areas – Boundaries between song riation in Song: Songbirds song (within species) rs less than variation between g variants abrupt
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Non-geographic V Inter-individu Variation in Song: ual Variation
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Non-Dialectal Geograp Clinal V phic Variation in Song: Variation
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Song D Dialects
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Some song dialects in Nuttall’s white-crowned sparrows MARIN BERKELEY SUNSET BEACH
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titude Mountain white- crowned sparrow song dialects in Lat song dialects in the Sierra Nevada Longitude
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SONORA PASS MOUNTAIN WHITE TIOGA PASS ROCKIES E-CROWNED SPARROWS
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What are the proximate de what individual songbirds s eterminants of eterminants of sing?
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How does song dev velop in songbirds?
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Natural Song Deve crowned Young sparrows hear lot during first few weeks o Generally don’t try to sin old (age varies by subsp At about 150 days of age B l i h fi b By early in the first bree
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