chapter_7_lectures_c_supplemental_notes

chapter_7_lectures_c_supplemental_notes -...

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NPB 102, Spring 2009 Notes for Chapter 7 Lectures C slides (Limpet/Oystercatcher interactions) Slide 1: Intro slide 2: Levels of organization review 3: As discussed at the beginning of the course, one very interesting thing to contemplate is how behavior of individual organisms affects processes at higher levels of organization, such as at the population and community levels. We’ve been concentrating on mechanisms up to now, so things that occur at lower levels of organization (e.g., at cellular and molecular levels). The focus here will be on how predator behavior (selectivity for different prey) and prey behavior affect population and community level patterns. 4: The rest of this lecture is based on work I did as an undergraduate and masters student at Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California. The work focuses on intertidal community structure, particularly the community of limpets living in the high intertidal and splash zone of the Central California coast. The “intertidal zone” is the region between the lowest low tide and the highest extent of where sea splash regularly reaches, so that organisms that are basically marine animals can live there. The intertidal zone consists of sub " zones, from very low areas that are only rarely exposed to the air at the very lowest low tides, to intermediate zones that are frequently exposed but usually only for relatively short periods of time, to high zones that usually are out in the air and only submerged at the highest high tides, to the splash zone, which is basically above the highest high tides and only gets wetted with sea water during high tides when there is significant wave action. The big photo shows intertidal zonation at Bodega Marine Lab, moving from the mussel beds and goose " neck barnacle clumps in the foreground (wave " swept, mid " intertidal zone) up through some higher zones dominated by various algae, and then to what looks like bare rock on the outcrops in the background, but which would have some acorn barnacles, limpets, and small snails called periwinkles, as well as films of algae such as diatoms. The inset picture shows very clearly the zonation bands evident during a very low tide on another rocky shore (in Tasmania, actually). The darker areas at the bottom are mostly algae of various sorts, the white zone is probably mostly acorn barnacles. 5: Different organisms are found predominantly in different parts of the intertidal zone and a lot of work has been devoted to trying to figure out what determines the distributions of different organisms. “Physical Factors” such as wave action and the frequency and duration of exposure to air during low tides are two factors well " known to affect which organisms can live where. Some organisms can tolerate being hammered by heavy waves, whereas others may require essentially calm water such as would only occur in a bay or harbor. Some organisms can either avoid drying out or tolerate being dried out even during extended periods of exposure to air; high and low temperatures (from sun, or winter
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chapter_7_lectures_c_supplemental_notes -...

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