Ch_322b_12.01

Ch_322b_12.01 - Chapter 12.1 lecture note

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Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds. Oxidation-Reduction and Organometallic Compounds. Introduction The carbonyl group is found in several functional groups: By one or more steps, alcohols may be transformed into these types of compounds, and, in turn, these functional groups may be transformed into alcohols. CHOH R R' C=O : R R' oxidation reduction The synthetic methods for carrying out these transformations are described in this chapter.
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The Carbonyl Group The bonding in the carbonyl group may be described in terms of combining atomic orbitals of sp 2 hybridized carbon and oxygen atoms. C sp 2 p z valence-level electrons O sp 2 p z valence-level electrons C p z O p z nonbonding electron pairs sp 2 sp 2 In-phase combination of the half-filled atomic orbitals provides the bonding orbitals of the carbonyl group.
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C p z O p z nonbonding electron pairs sp 2 sp 2 C O : 120 o 120 o The carbonyl group is locally planar.
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Polarity and Reactivity of the Carbonyl Group The carbonyl group is
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Ch_322b_12.01 - Chapter 12.1 lecture note

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