Ch_322b_15.09 - Chapter 15.9 lecture note

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Substituent Effects on the Reactivity and Orientation of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Substituent groups already on the benzene ring greatly influence both the reactivity of electrophilic attack, and the site (o,m,p) of attachment of the incoming electrophile. Classification of Substituents Substituents are classified as activating or deactivating relative to the reactivity of benzene. Substituents also are classified as ortho/para directing or meta directing . There is a fundamental theoretical connection between the reactivity influence and site direction of a substituent group.
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Activating Groups: Ortho-Para Directors The methyl and other alkyl groups are in this category. Example: The Nitration of Toluene Alkyl groups are also activating and ortho/para directing in other electrophilic aromatic substitutions such as halogenation, sulfonation, and Friedel-Crafts reactions. CH
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2009 for the course CHEM 322BL at USC.

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Ch_322b_15.09 - Chapter 15.9 lecture note

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