Ch_322b_14.01 - Chapter 14.1 lecture note

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Chapter 14 Aromatic Compounds Early History In the early 19th century, whale oil was an important commercial product. Pyrolysis of the oil produced a gas used to light theaters and public buildings in London. A volatile aromatic (pleasant smelling) liquid separated when the gas was compressed for distribution in tanks. The famous English scientist Michael Faraday, Director of the Royal Institution, investigated this liquid and found that it contained carbon and hydrogen in equal atomic proportions. This same liquid was later isolated from the tar distilled from coal and was named benzene . Other aromatic compounds were similarly isolated from natural products during the first half of the 19th century.
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A Structural Puzzle In 1834 the German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich produced benzene from benzoic acid: C 6 H 5 COOH + CaO C 6 H 6 + CaCO 3 benzoic acid benzene His work showed the molecular formula of benzene is C 6 H 6 . Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons By the mid-19th century, the Theory of Valence (Kekule', Couper, Butlerov) showed that most known organic compounds generally had twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms. A pattern of atomic
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Ch_322b_14.01 - Chapter 14.1 lecture note

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