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Ch_322b_18.01 - Chapter 18.1 lecture note

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Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives: Nucleophilic Substitution at Acyl Carbon Carboxylic acids are a family of organic compounds with the functional group -C-OH O = also written as -CO 2 H or COOH The carbon-oxygen double bond is made up of a ! -bond and a " -bond. The carbon atom is sp 2 hybridized, which explains the trigonal planar geometry at this center. C O R HO ! " R may be alkyl, aryl or simply H
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Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids Common names are frequently used for the simpler carboxylic acids that have been known for hundreds of years. HCOOH CH 3 COOH CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH formic acid (from L. formica, or ant) acetic acid (from L. acetum, vinegar) butyric acid (from L. butyrum, butter) In common names, the positions of substituents are often given by ! , " , # .... C C C C COOH ! " # $ examples CH 3 CH 2 CHCOOH Cl ! -chlorobutyric acid CH 2 CH 2 COOH "# phenylpropionic acid
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Aromatic Acids: Benzoic Acids The carboxylic acids derived from benzene are named as derivatives of benzoic acid , using the standard notations to indicate positions of substituent groups.
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