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Unformatted text preview: Preparation of Carboxylic Acids Industrial Procedures Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH , is the most important industrial carboxylic acid. Current production in the United States is close to 5 billion pounds per year. Acetic acid is used in producing polyvinyl acetate, aspirin, food preservatives, flavoring agents, etc. Several routes are used in the large scale industrial production of acetic acid: The bacterial oxidation of ethanol in water produces a solution of acetic acid called vinegar (4-12%). The fermentation of fruit juice or grain by bacterial enzymes produces vinegars with characteristic flavors due to other compounds present. CH 3 CH 2 OH + O 2 bacterial enzymes CH 3 COOH + H 2 O hydrocarbons O 2 catalysts CH 3 CH O = acetaldehyde O 2 catalysts CH 3 OH + CO Rh-I 2 catalyst CH 3 COOH acetic acid Fats and Oils as Sources of Straight-Chain Carboxylic Acids Straight-chain carboxylic acids with an even number of carbon atoms (C 6 to C 18 ) are available from the hydrolysis of fats and oils. Natural fats and oils are esters of glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) called triglycerides (older name) or triacylglycerols . Triacylglycerols may be oils ( liquids) from plants (peanut oil, soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, coconut oil) or fats (solids) from animals (butter, lard)....
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2009 for the course CHEM 322BL at USC.
- Organic chemistry